2017年02月14日

英語の文法用語を英語で覚えるということ

 下に、Voice of America から Everyday Grammar という番組を2つ紹介しました。

 文法について説明している番組ですから、英語の文法用語が出てきます。例えば 「過去形」 は past tense のように。

 大学で英語の授業をネイティブ・スピーカーの先生が行うことが増えてきていますし、文科省の学習指導要領でも 「高校での英語の授業は英語で行うことを基本とする」 のようにうたっています。
 ですから、文法用語を英語で知っておくことが、これからどんどん必要になってくることでしょう。

 下の拙著では、文法を英語で説明していますから、読み進めていくことによって、文法用語を英語で無理なく覚えていくことができます。

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 ここからどうぞ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 13:29| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

ていねいな質問を表す単純過去形

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。

 きょうは、過去形でていねいな意味を表す表現を話しています。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分12秒あります。



 Imagine you are at a cafe in the United States. The server walks toward you and asks the following question:

Did you want cream for your coffee?

You might ask yourself how you should answer.
  What is the server talking about?
  Why did the server use a past tense construction, "Did you want?"
  Why did the server not say "Do you want cream for your coffee?"


 In today's Everyday Grammar, we will try to solve a mystery: why do some Americans use the past tense when they are talking about the present?


Simple Past Tense

 The simple past tense is used for actions or situations that happened in the past. These actions or situations are finished.
 For example, you might hear a person say, "Did you have a good weekend?"

 When they ask this question, they are using the past tense construction, "Did you have ...," and they are clearly discussing a recent weekend that is now finished.

 They might ask such a question when they see you on Monday or Tuesday when you are back at work or school, for example.

 The traditional use of the simple past tense is this: to note complete actions or situations in the past. This definition is true most of the time in English conversation.


Simple Past Tense with "want" and "need"

 However, there are exceptions.
 For example, in conversation, Americans often use the simple past tense of the verbs want or need even though they are asking a question about the present.
 Let’s go back to the American cafe. You might hear a conversation such as this:

Server: Did you want cream for your coffee?
Customer: No thanks!
Server: Did you need more water?
Customer: Yes, please!

 In the conversation, the server uses the simple past tense when asking questions.
 It would be grammatically correct to say "Do you want cream for your coffee” or "Do you need more water?"

 So, why did the server use the simple past tense instead of the present tense?


Culture and Grammar

 Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber are grammar experts. They say that different cultures have different rules about politeness. In American culture, it is often considered polite to speak indirectly.

 One way some Americans speak indirectly, Conrad and Biber say, is by using a past tense verb when asking about a present desire. Americans do this by using the construction and .

 Even close friends may use this polite form with each other. When they are asking about what another person wants to do, some Americans say, "Did you want to go to the concert?" instead of "Do you want to go to the concert?"

 However, speakers do not answer such questions in the simple past tense. The answer usually comes in the verb forms that you would expect -- a simple present, present progressive or future tense verb, for example.

 Consider one of our example sentences: "Did you want to go to the concert?"

 The response to this question could be in the simple present tense: "No, I don't want to."
 Or the response could be in the present progressive: "No, I'm watching a movie."
 Or the answer could be in the future tense: "Yes, I'll go to the concert."

 You can read more about these verb forms in previous Everyday Grammar stories.

Past tense with other verbs

 We started this program with a question: why do some Americans use the past tense when talking about the present?
 We have discovered that Americans generally only do this when asking about a present desire or preference ? and usually only with the verbs want and need.
 In general, Americans do not use the simple past in this way when they are asking for information or using other verbs, such as like, love, prefer, and so on.

 This lesson is not designed to give you yet another grammar rule to remember. The point is to show you that native speakers will use language in ways that do not always follow the grammatical definitions that you may have learned about.

 Today's lesson will be useful if you are ever listening or speaking to an American. You might be able to ask polite questions, or understand what Americans mean when they ask you a question.

 Remember: we have talked about a grammatical structure that you might hear or use in conversation. It does not follow the traditional rules of grammar, so we do not advise that you use it on your next English grammar test!

I'm Alice Bryant.

And I'm John Russell.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:07| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月13日

文法:everyday と every day の使い分け

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組です。
 やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。ネイティブ・スピーカーでも間違える文法や表記のことを話しています。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分30秒あります。




From VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

This week, we will learn a few English words and phrases that are commonly misused in English.

Even well-educated native English speakers make the mistakes you will read and hear about today, including reporters and English teachers!

After today’s program, you can have fun finding these mistakes when other people use them.

Let’s start with a very common written mistake that native English speakers make.

"could of" or could’ve

If you spend time on social media, such as Facebook, you may see that native English speakers often use the word of after the words could, would or should. For example, in the sentence:

I could of gone to New York last weekend.

However, the word of is a preposition. The sentence needs a verb instead. The confusion is caused by the shortened, or abbreviated, version of “could have.” It takes an apostrophe followed by the letters ve. The spelling then is could've.

The preposition of sounds just like the shortened version of the verb have, which is pronounced ’ve.

In speaking, this is not a problem, since both phrases sound the same.

In writing, an easy way to remember the correct form is that could, would and should are helping verbs. So another verb must always follow them.

In the example, “I could’ve gone to New York last weekend,” have and gone are forms of verbs. Of is a preposition and would never appear after a helping verb.

Every day or Everyday

Another writing error happens every day in America. Native English speakers often misspell “every day” They will write it as one word instead of two.

When every and day are put together as one word, they become an adjective that means “common” or “used or seen each day.” When you use this adjective, you must usually put it before a noun. For example, you can say:

He didn’t let the problems of everyday life worry him.

But, if you wanted to tell someone that something happens each day, you must separate the words every and day in writing. For example, you could write:?

I practice my grammar every day.

When every and day are separate words, they are an adverb phrase that describes when, or how often, something happens.

So, how can you easily remember which one to use? Think of the title Everyday Grammar. Remember, if you are writing the single word everyday, it is an adjective that most often comes before a noun. But the two words every and day express how often something happens. And they are an adverb phrase, and must modify a verb.

The other mistakes we are looking at today can happen in either speech or writing.

Different than or different from

Many native English speakers use the phrase different than to show contrast between things or people. For example:

Children are different than adults.

Technically, that is incorrect. Standard English usage requires from instead of than, in this case. The correct sentence would be:

Children are different from adults.

But grammar experts do not always agree. Some of them say the phrase different than is acceptable. It has existed for centuries, they argue, and famous writers have used it in their works. For instance, 19th century writer F. Scott Fitzgerald used different than in his short story “The Rich Boy.” Listen:

Let me tell you about the very rich. They are different than you and me.

Some grammar experts say that both than and from are acceptable. However, no one objects to from, so it would be your safest choice, especially in academic writing.

“15 items or less”

The less grammar you understand, the more mistakes you probably will make. And the fewer grammar mistakes you make, the better.

Which brings us to another common grammar mistake: the use and misuse of fewer and less. Fewer is used with countable nouns; Less, with non-countable.

This mistake is found at food stores throughout the U.S. where signs at checkout lines sometimes read “15 items or less.” These lines are for people who are not buying very much.

But the phrase uses the adjective less to describe items, a countable noun. So less is wrong; the correct adjective is fewer.

The word fewer must be used with count nouns, like items, animals, cars, or dresses. Less is used with non-count nouns, such as money, sand, love, or water. (See our Everyday Grammar episode on Understanding Non-count Nouns)

So how can you remember whether to use less or fewer? One easy way to remember is to ask yourself, "Can I count this thing on a few fingers?" If the answer is "yes," use the word fewer.

We will be back next week with another Everyday Grammar. And remember: if you understand how to use the words discussed today, you are different from many English speakers!

I’m John Russell. And I’m Jill Robbins.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 11:25| Comment(0) | 英語の表記法

百姓再開

 昨日は、朝は冷え込みましたが、お昼近くになると気温も上がってきたため、収穫のために畑に行きました。

 畑に行ってしまうと、やっぱり収穫だけでは終わりません。

 不織布をかけておいたエンドウ類がこんもりと盛り上がっていたため、外して見ると、こんな感じで雑草が大きく育っています。(ほんとうは雑草と言ってはいけないそうですが)
写真はクリックすると拡大します。


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 草を取ると、エンドウが出てきました。
 もうすぐ、ネットを張ってやらなければなりません。百姓はいそがしい。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:44| Comment(0) | 農事通信

2017年02月12日

朝の徘徊

 八王子の我が家から歩いてすぐの所にある公園から見た富士山と丹沢山系です。
 きょうはいい天気だろうと分かっていたので、朝早く起きて朝日に照らされた富士山を撮りたかったのですが、やっぱり寝坊してしまいました。
 これは9時頃の景色です。写真はクリックすると拡大します。

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 天気のよい週末、私はよくこの公園を散策します。家から歩いて数分です。

 畑も隣接していて、こんな感じの小径も残っています。舗装されていない土の小道っていいですね。

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 冬枯れの里山です。

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 公園の中には水車もあります。これは昨年の秋に作り換えた新しいものです。

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 東屋の屋根に生えたが朝日に輝いていました。

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 もう何度も行きましたが、いつも癒される里山公園です。


posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:39| Comment(0) | 雑文