2017年03月08日

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制3(完了形)

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 昨日に引き続き 「時制」 ですが、きょうは「>完了形
」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日と同じ6分半です。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 完了形の「経験用法」、「継続用法」、「完了・結果用法」をどのように説明しているのかに注意してください。
  また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today, we are going to talk about the perfect verb tenses. Perfect tenses generally focus on how a past action affects the present. For example, “I have already eaten.”  The suggestion is that the speaker is not hungry.

 Perfect verb tenses are the most difficult for English learners. The term “perfect” can be confusing. What does grammar have to do with not making mistakes? When you are talking about grammar, perfect has a different meaning. It comes from the Latin word perfectum, which means “complete.”

 The most important thing to remember is the perfect tenses always refer to completed actions. If you get confused, try replacing “perfect” with “completed,” and the time relationship should become clearer.


Present Perfect

 We will start with the present perfect. You form the present perfect using has or have followed by a past participle verb. For example, “I have seen Star Wars.”

 The use of the present perfect here gives us three pieces of information.
 First, it tells us that the event is finished.
 Second, it tells us that the exact time of the action is unknown or unimportant.
 Third, it suggests that the experience of seeing Star Wars has some effect in the present.

 One of the most difficult distinctions for English learners to make is the difference between the simple past and present perfect.

 Remember, when there is a specific time, you use the simple past. In the sentence “I saw Star Wars last night,” the adverb last night is a specific time.

 You cannot say “I have seen Star Wars last night.” But, you could say, “I have seen Star Wars before” or “in the past” or “three times.”

 You should also use the present perfect to refer to a repeated action in the past. For example, “I have taken that test four times.” The exact time of each action is not important.

 You can also use the present perfect to describe an action that did not happen, using the adverb never. “I have never traveled outside of my country” and “I have never smoked in my entire life.” Something that did not happen in the past, like not traveling and not smoking, can also have an effect in the present.

 The adverbs never, already, yet and so far are common in the present perfect. Adverbs are often the best indicators of which verb tense to use.


Past Perfect

 Now let us look at the past perfect. The past perfect describes an activity that was finished before another event in the past. For example, “She had already had a baby before she graduated.”

 To form the past perfect, use had followed by a past participle verb. For the second action, use before or by the time followed by the simple past verb. Imagine you were at a New Year’s Eve party, but you fell asleep before midnight. You could say, “I had already fallen asleep before the New Year came.”

 You can use the past perfect to talk about how an experience from the distant past relates to an experience from the more recent past. For example, “The soldier wasn’t scared because he had already been in battle before.”

 In other words, battle was not a new experience for the soldier.

 If the time relationship is clear, you can choose between the past perfect and the simple past. “My grandfather passed away before I was born,” has the same meaning as “My grandfather had passed away before I was born.”

 The past perfect just emphasizes that the first action was completed before the second action.


Future Perfect

 Let us move on to the future perfect. Use the future perfect when you know that one future action will be completed before another future action. For example, “I will have graduated from college before my little brother graduates from high school.”

 The future perfect has very limited use because we rarely know a future sequence of events with any certainty. When it is used, the future perfect usually refers to major life events that are planned years in advance.

 And those are the three perfect tenses. Join us next week on Everyday Grammar for an explanation of the perfect progressive tenses.

 I’m John Russell.
 And I’m Ashley Thompson.


 この花がなぜオオイヌノフグリと呼ばれるのかは、実を見ると分かります。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:47| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月07日

オバマ前大統領も間違えた文法とは?

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 「時制」をシリーズでアップする予定ですが、急遽、この記事をアップしましょう。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分半です。

 いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできますよ。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 
 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 On March 5, Jazmine Hughes wrote in a New York Times blog,

 “Recently, at an IRL party − that is, a party that takes place ‘in real life,’ as opposed to where I generally live, which is on the Internet − a guest asked a friend and I how we met.”

 The sentence includes a common error I have been seeing and hearing more and more often lately.

 The error is using the subject pronoun “I” when the object pronoun “me” should be used.

 Even President Obama can be heard using “I” for the object of a sentence. At his first press conference, on November 7, 2008, he spoke about being invited to tour the White House. “Well, President Bush graciously invited Michelle and I to -- to meet with him and First Lady Laura Bush.”

The rule for object pronouns

 English has eight subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, you and they. Subject pronouns show the actor in a sentence. For example, in the sentence “I speak English,” “I” is the actor.

 English also has eight object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, you and them. We use an object pronoun to show the receiver of the action in a sentence, as in “She gave the book to me.” In that sentence, “me” is the receiver.

 People often confuse subject pronouns and object pronouns in sentences with two receivers.

 Take the sentence “President Obama gave an award to my brother and me.” We can easily see the need for an object pronoun because of the preposition “to.”

 But some sentences do not have prepositions, as in “Obama asked my brother and me some questions.” The sentence still needs the object pronoun “me.”

 However, some people might want to say “Obama asked my brother and I some questions.” You know that sentence has a grammar error because “I” is not an object pronoun.

Why people say “I” instead of “me”

 I think the confusion about “I” and “me” comes from instruction we get as children: to be polite. When we mention ourselves and another person in a sentence, we are told to put the other person first.

 For example, we might be reminded to say, “My brother and I went to the White House.” Saying “I and my brother went to the White House” is grammatically correct but would sound impolite, or rude.

 So, English speakers who are faced with two people in the object position in a sentence often grab for the phrase “someone and I.” They do not notice the phrase is grammatically incorrect. It just sounds more polite.

 Another theory about the “I” or “me” error comes from a 2009 New York Times article “The I’s Have It.”

 Writers Patricia T. O’Conner and Stewart Kellerman guess that people correct children who use “me” instead of “I” so much, the children grow up using “I” even when it is wrong. They explain the term for this linguistic phenomenon is “hypercorrection.”

 Back to Ms. Hughes, her party and the New York Times blog. Her sentence should be re-written as “…a guest asked a friend and me how we met.” Shortly after I called the error to the newspaper's attention, the sentence was corrected in this way.

  A simple way to check for the correct pronoun in a case like this is mentally to eliminate the second person. Try saying in your head “A guest asked me how we met,” or “A guest asked a friend how we met.” That simple check makes choosing the correct pronoun easier.

 Now you will always know the right pronoun to use –- take it from me!

 I’m Jill Robbins.


Words in This Story

error - n. something that is not correct; a wrong action or statement; mistake

instruction - n. the action or process of teaching : the act of instructing someone

phenomenon - n. something (such as an interesting fact or event) that can be observed and studied and that typically is unusual or difficult to understand or explain fully

hypercorrection n. the mistaken use of a word form or pronunciation based on a false analogy with a correct or prestigious form​

 Now it’s your turn. In the comments section, tell us about your own grammar gripes. What do people say in your language that bothers you?
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:30| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

『TOEICレジスタードマーク L & R Testを使って、英語の4技能を効率的に伸ばす方法』


 上のタイトルの拙著に、すばらしいカスタマーレビューを2ついただきました。的を射た適切なレビューです。ぜひご覧ください。

 ここから進んでください。

 99円です。


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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:06| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制-2(進行形)

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 昨日に引き続き 「時制」 ですが、きょうは「進行形」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日よりもずっと短くて、6分半です。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 
 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today, we are going to look at the progressive verb tenses. Progressive tenses express actions that are unfinished or in progress. There are three progressive verb tenses: the past progressive, the present progressive, and the future progressive. Progressive tenses are the same as continuous tenses.

 We will start with the present progressive, the most common progressive tense. You form the present progressive tense by using a form of the verb be followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I am watching a movie.

 It is easy to confuse the simple present and the present progressive. What’s the difference between, “It rains in Seattle” and “It is raining in Seattle”?

 “It rains in Seattle” states that it rains in general. It does not necessarily mean that it is raining at the moment of speaking. “It is raining in Seattle” means that the rain started in the past, is happening now, and will probably continue into the future.

 Now, at this time, and currently are common adverbs in the present progressive.

 The present progressive can also express a scheduled event in the future. For example, this sentence is in the present progressive: “She is starting school next semester.

 The meaning here is the same as the sentence in the simple future: “She is going to start school next semester.” The present progressive and simple future (with be going to) sometimes have the same.

 You can also use present progressive with always to say that something disturbs you. “My neighbor is always playing loud music at night” or “I am always making mistakes with verb tenses!


Past Progressive

 Let’s move on to the past progressive. The past progressive describes an event that was in progress in the past. To form the past progressive use was or were followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I was working late last night.

 Sentences in the past progressive often have two actions.

 For example, “It was snowing when the plane landed in Denver.
 Notice that the second action, landed, is in the simple past.

 The past progressive can also express an action in progress interrupted by a second action. “I was running when I slipped and fell” or “I was sleeping when you called.

 It is possible to have two progressive actions in the same sentence if the two actions are happening at the same time. You could say, “I was sleeping when you were working.”


Future Progressive

 The future progressive tense describes an event that will be in progress in the future. To form the future progressive tense, use will be followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I will be waiting for you when you finish work.

 The future progressive can be useful when you are making plans. Imagine your friend wants you to pick her up the airport tomorrow. But you have to work.

 You could tell her, “I’m sorry, but I will be working when your plane gets in.

 You can learn more about future tenses in this previous episode of Everyday Grammar.


Stative Verbs

 There are some verbs that cannot be used in any of the progressive tenses. You would say “I own a car,” not I am owning a car.” Own is a stative verb. Stative verbs describe unchanging conditions or situations. Stative verbs often refer to mental states such as know, realize, like, believe, understand, love, hate, appear, and exist.

 A few verbs have both stative and non-stative meanings. Let’s look at the verb think. “I think the book is good” is stative. The action does not change. “I am thinking about you” is progressive. It shows a temporary, changing action. Sensory verbs like see, taste, feel, smell, and hear work the in the same way.

 Progressive verbs are especially useful for describing changing emotional states. For that reason, they are very common in song lyrics. We will leave you with a few examples.

 I’m John Russell.

 And I’m Jill Robbins.

[John Lennon]
“I was dreaming of the past
And my heart was beating fast
I began to lose control…”

[Styx]
“I’m sailing away
Sail an open course for the virgin sea”

[Adele]
“I'll be waiting for you when
you're ready to love me again
I put my hands up
I'll do everything different
I'll be better to you”


 右に見える『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』では、こうした文法を簡潔に分かりやすく説明しています。


 この花は、オオイヌノフグリです。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:16| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月06日

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制の基礎 (VOA Learning English)


 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、「時制の基礎講座」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。かなり長くて、9分ありますが、英語の時制の考え方が理解できるかと思います。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 きょうは、12の時制についての文法用語が覚えられますよ。

 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。

 英文を追わなくても聴き取れるかもしれません。スマホなどを使って聞いてみましょう。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today, we are going to give you a basic overview of the verb tense system in English.
 Verb tenses tell us how an action relates to the flow of time.
 There are three main verb tenses in English: present, past and future. The present, past and future tenses are divided into four aspects: the simple, progressive, perfect and perfect progressive.

 There are 12 major verb tenses that English learners should know.

 English has only two ways of forming a tense from the verb alone: the past and the present. For example, we drove and we drive.

 To form other verb tenses, you have to add a form of have, be or will in front of the verb. These are called helping, or auxiliary verbs.

Time, culture, and grammar

 Verb tenses can be difficult to learn in a foreign language. Different cultures think different ways about time. Chinese, for example, has no grammatical verb tenses. Other languages, like Indonesian, express time only through adverbs ― there are no changes to the verb form.

 English verb tenses give many details about time and action such as:
 Is the action finished?
 How long did the action happen?
 Was the action repeated?
 Did the action happen at a known or unknown time?
 Is the action a habit?
 Is the action planned or spontaneous?

 It is difficult to think about time distinctions that do not exist in your own language. So, it can take many years for English learners to master verb tenses.

 Let’s get started. We are going to give examples of all 12 verb tenses using the verb drive.

Simple Tenses

 We’ll start with the simple tenses. These are probably the first tenses you learned in English. Simple tenses usually refer to a single action. In general, simple tenses express facts and situations that existed in the past, exist in the present, or will exist in the future.

Simple present: I drive home every day.
Simple past: I drove home yesterday.
Simple future: I will drive home later.

Progressive (Continuous) Tenses

 Let’s go on to the progressive tenses. We use progressive tenses to talk about unfinished events. Progressive tenses are also called continuous tenses.

Past progressive: I was driving when you called.
Present progressive: I am driving now.
Future progressive: I will be driving when you call.

Perfect Tenses

 Now let’s look at the perfect tenses. Perfect tenses cause the most confusion. To put it simply, they express the idea that one event happens before another event.

 There are many tricky exceptions with the perfect tenses, which we will discuss in a future episode. The adverbs never, yet and already are common in perfect tenses.

Present perfect: I have driven that road.
Past perfect: I had already driven that road in the past.
Future perfect: I will have driven 200 miles by tomorrow.

Perfect Progressive Tenses

 Finally, let’s look at the perfect progressive tenses. Generally, perfect progressive tenses express duration, or how long? Perfect progressive tenses usually include the adverbs for or since.

Present perfect progressive: I have been driving since this morning.
Past perfect progressive: I had been driving for three hours before I stopped to get gas.
Future perfect progressive: I will have been driving for five hours by the time I arrive.

 Don’t worry if you don’t understand everything yet. Here are some recommendations we have for learning verb tenses.

  Adverbs are your friends

 First, think of adverbs as your friends. Adverbs of time offer valuable clues about the correct verb tense.

 Let’s use the adverb ago. Ago is only used in the simple past as in, “I left home three years ago.” The adverb ago is never used in the present perfect. Certain adverbs occur with certain verb tenses.

  Keep it simple

 English learners sometimes try to impress people by using complex verb tenses. You often have a choice of several verb tenses. When you do, always choose the simplest one. It will be clearer for your listener, and there is less chance of making a mistake.

  Practice with questions

 Native speakers don’t think consciously about verb tenses. With enough practice, English learners can internalize the verb tense system, too. Instead of worrying about deep time relationships, try using adverbs and your ear to choose the right verb tense.

 Often when someone asks a question, you can respond in the same verb tense. We’ll ask a question in each verb tense. Give an answer in the same tense, then listen to our answer.

Ready?

1. Did you get enough sleep last night? (simple past)
  Yes, I slept well.

2. Do you shower every day? (simple present)
  Yes, I shower every day.

3. Are you going to study tonight? (simple future)
  Yes, I’m going to study tonight.

4. What were you doing when I called you last night? (past progressive)
  I was eating dinner when you called me last night.

5. What are you doing right now? (present progressive)
  I am practicing verb tenses right now.

6. What will you be doing at midnight on New Year’s Eve? (future progressive)
  I will be celebrating the New Year with my friends.

7. Had you ever tried skiing before today? (past perfect)
  Yes, I had already done it several times before.

8. Have you ever broken the law? (present perfect)
  No, I have never broken the law.

9. Will you have gotten married by the time you turn 30? (future perfect)
  No, I will not have gotten married by the time I turn 30.

10. How long had you been smoking before you quit? (past perfect progressive)
   I had been smoking for two years before I quit.

11. How long have you been waiting for the bus? (present perfect progressive)
   I have been waiting for the bus for 20 minutes.

12. How long will you have been working before you retire? (future perfect progressive)
   I will have been working for 30 years before I retire.

This is just a basic introduction to verb tenses. In the following weeks, we will cover the more difficult verb tenses in more detail.

I’m Jill Robbins. And I’m John Russell.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:15| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法