2017年02月16日

アンドリュー・ジャクソンに例えられるトランプ

 Voice of America の The Making of a Nation (国の成り立ち)という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、トランプ大統領と第7代大統領のアンドリュー・ジャクソンを比較している話です。
 日本語では、議員や首相などに使う 「」 と 「」 は区別していますが、英語では「大統領」も「大統領」も、同じく former president です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分14秒あります。




 Donald Trump has done a lot in his first week as president of the United States.
 Trump canceled several of former President Barack Obama’s executive orders. He signed some of his own executive orders. He also met with members of the U.S. intelligence community.

 In between, the new president chose artwork to hang in his office at the White House. One is a painting of former President Andrew Jackson.

 Some Americans say his choice of the painting is not a surprise. Many have been comparing President Trump with the former president.

 Jackson became America’s seventh president in 1828. Historians consider the 1828 election one of the more negative presidential campaigns. Many people say the 2016 election campaign was also extremely negative.

 That is just the beginning of the comparisons between Trump and Jackson, observers say. Both men campaigned as populists – candidates who say they represent ordinary people. Both are also known as political outsiders and conservatives. And, both are known for having strong personalities.

 Jackson, like Trump, was fiercely independent. He said that he alone would define his administration’s policies.

 Trump spoke about conditions in the United States, and around the world, at the Republican Party’s national convention last summer.

 “I alone can fix it,” he said. Trump was talking of, in his words, “poverty and violence at home,” and “war and destruction abroad.”

 Observers have also noted similar parts of his inaugural speech to the speech given by former President Jackson.

 Andrew Jackson served two terms in office. He was a member of the Democratic Party -- the conservative party at that time in American history.

 Donald Trump once considered himself a Democrat. He was also, at one time, an independent. He is now a Republican -- the major conservative party in America today.

 But there are some clear differences between the two presidents, says writer Richard Dean Young. He has argued that Trump is not exactly a modern-day Jackson.

 “Historical comparisons are tricky,” Young told VOA.

 One difference is that Jackson served in the U.S. military, Young said. He fought in battles against Native Americans and, later, against British forces.

 Trump, on the other hand, is a billionaire businessman from New York City. In Young’s words, Trump is “a city boy with absolutely no experience in military matters.”

 "Jackson was ‘one of the people,’ definitely not a city boy,” Young said.

 Margaret O’Mara is a professor of history at the University of Washington in Seattle. She said Trump’s populist-conservative message does resemble that of Andrew Jackson’s.

 O’Mara said, “Trump is extraordinary.” And the country, she said, has never elected a populist quite like him before.

 O’Mara said it is still too early to predict Trump’s place in history.

 "It is too soon to make judgments about his place in presidential history. That will depend on what he does, how he does it," O’Mara said.

 I'm Caty Weaver.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:40| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月15日

神田川

You may have already forgotten ...
Tying a red towel around the neck
You and I went to the bathhouse on the back street

We promised to come out together
Well, you always kept me waiting

My washed hair froze to the core
I was shivering and my soapbox rattled

You held me tight and said
Sorry, you became cold

Back then being young
I was not afraid of anything
The only thing I was afraid of losing
Was your warmth



 「神田川」 の1番の最後は 「あなたのやさしさが怖かった」 ですが、「やさしさを失うのが怖い」 と考えるほうがいいだろうと考えて、afraid of losing を補ってみました。

 また、「やさしさ」 は kindness をすぐに思い浮かべますが、風呂上がりで冷めた身体を抱いてくれた 「彼の温かさ」 と 「やさしさ」 を結びつけて、warmth としてみました。

0139B759.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:50| Comment(0) | 雑文

弘法も筆のあやまり ―― ネイティブ・スピーカーも文法を間違える


 下の写真は、アメリカのスーパーマーケットのレジにある掲示です。

express-lane.jpg

 アメリカ人たちは、スーパーで毎日ショッピングをすることは、ほとんどありません。家の冷蔵庫も巨大ですから、週末にまとめて大量に買い込みます。
 ですから、レジでは一人一人の精算に時間がかかるのです。

 数品しか買わない人にとっては、長い列に待たされるとイライラします。

 そこで、こんな掲示を設置して、そうした人たちにすばやく対応しようというわけです。


 しかし、この less は文法的に間違っています。10 items のように数えられる名詞が使われていますから、並べて比較するのであれば、less ではなく fewer にすべきです。

 下の写真の本では、こうした看板や交通標識の写真を約60枚使い、その表現や文法などを詳しく解説しています。

SeikatuCover_web.jpg

 そして、わずか300円です。スマホでも見られますよ。

 ここから進んでください。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:07| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

stump という単語を使ったイディオムとその歴史

 Voice of America の Words and Their Stories という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。

 きょうは、stump という単語がどういうイディオムで、また大統領のスピーチの中で使われているかを話しています。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。6分11秒あります。



 And now the VOA Learning English program, Words and Their Stories.

 Every word has its own story. What does it mean? Where did it come from? And how did it get into our language?

 There are many stories of early settlers of America: the people who moved westward and opened up new territory. Many of these settlers were farmers who wanted a new home, a piece of land, some crops and cattle.

 So, they moved west, cutting their way through difficult terrain, searching for a good place to live and farm. When they found it, they took out their axes and cut down trees. This was hard work. One of the hardest tasks was pulling up tree stumps from the ground.

 And that’s our word today -- “stump.”

 A tree stump is the part of a tree that remains in the ground after the tree is cut down. Stumps can also be the part of something such as a pencil that remains after the rest has been worn away.

 Tree stumps gave these early American farmers big problems. Some stumps were so big that farmers had to use two or three horses to pull them out.

 Stumps became part of life and part of the language. If someone asked a settler if they had cleared the land, they might answer: “Nope. I’m still stumped.” This means they did not know how to get rid of the tree stumps from the ground.

 And today, this meaning of the word is the same. To be stumped is to not know what to do or say. You are confused. You are blocked.

 During the early days of America, the trees fell fast. The stumps remained for years. Sometimes they became part of the landscape. Some writers even wrote stories about tree stumps.

 One day in 1716, a visitor named Ann Maury left the east coast to visit a so-called “stump town” in the west.

 “I went into the middle of the town,” she wrote. “And there, right in the center, surrounded by wooden buildings, was the great stump of a tree. I asked why this stump had not been pulled up. ‘Oh, we just never thought of it,’ was the answer. ‘Besides,’ the townspeople explained, ‘whenever one of the two chiefs has something to say, he stands upon this stump and is raised higher than the others. In this way, he can be heard better.’”

 When George Washington became commander of all the colonial troops in 1775, he supposedly used stumps to talk to his troops.

 In time, anyone who stood on a stump and spoke to the people became a “stump speaker.” As we know, politicians like to speak to crowds. So, it wasn’t long before “stump” entered politics.

 Presidential candidates travel all over the country to explain their positions on issues to voters and try to win their support.

 Jon Favreau was a speechwriter for President Barack Obama. He explained in an ABC news video that a stump speech is a candidate’s “argument” for why he or she should be elected.

 The speechwriter says that stump speeches contain everything a voter needs to know about where a candidate stands on issues important to that campaign.

 He says that stump speeches are useful “campaign tools that they (politicians) can use on the road.” They can simply reuse the same speech over and over or change it a little to fit each audience.

 We also use “stump” as a verb. The Online Etymology Dictionary defines “stump” as to "go on a speaking tour during a political campaign." The site says that usage began in 1838.

 These days, politicians are “stumping” when they go into their same old speech that they have given over and over and over again. So, it is no surprise that “stumping” used this way is often not a good thing.

 And that is the end of Words and Their Stories. If this story has left you feeling stumped, write us a comment. We will help you figure it out!

 I’m Anna Matteo.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:09| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月14日

なごり雪

You are waiting for a train
Standing next to you
I am worrying about the time
Unseasonal snow is falling

This will be the last time
I see snow falling in Tokyo
So you said sadly

Now I see the season has come
It's the time when late spring snow falls
After we've had too much fun

Now it's spring
And you have become pretty
Much prettier than last year



 融け残った雪は 「なごり雪」 ではありません。
 融け残った雪は 「友待つ雪」 といいます。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 23:25| Comment(0) | 雑文