2017年02月20日

江戸期の正月に月は出ない。

 以前にもほかの作家の作品で、このことを書きました。今日は葉室麟氏の作品です。

 葉室氏の勘違いなのか、私の理解不足なのか分かりませんが、次の展開がちょっと気になりました。写真はクリックすると拡大します。拡大して読んでください。

   20170220192113.jpg

 まず、「年が明けた。 正月早々、....」 とあります。そして、「年賀の挨拶」 とありますから、7日も10日も経ってからではないでしょう。たぶん三が日のあいだだと思われます。

 旧暦では、正月(月の初め)は新月です。つまり、夜に月は見えません。

 作品のこの場面が正月3日だとしたら、三日月です。次の写真のように 「月を見上げた」のは、夜暗くなってからかなりが経った時刻と思われますから、夜半でしょうか。

   20170220192148.jpg

とすると、三日月は、すでに沈んでいるはずです。

葉室氏の作品は数多く読みましたが、彼は時代考証がすばらしく、こんなミスを犯すとは思えないのです。私の理解力のなさでしょうかね。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:53| Comment(0) | 雑文

日常会話での 「不同意」 の表現

 やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語で、日常英会話の表現を聞いてみましょう。きょうは、不同意を示す表現集です。

 ちょっと長くて9分41秒あります。ゆっくりした英語ですから、疲れずに聞けるかと思います。

スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Imagine that you are walking down the street in an American city. You might hear short conversations as you pass people. One such short conversation might sound like this:

A: Should we try that restaurant? I hear the food is cheap!
B: Their food is supposed to be bad, though.*  There's a reason the food is cheap!
A: Yeah but I need to save money for my Mom's Christmas gift!

 The point of this conversation is not to teach you that America has a lot of bad restaurants.  In fact, America does have some very good restaurants!

 The point of this conversation is to show you how some Americans disagree with each other in everyday conversation. These friendly disagreements, for example, might be between friends who are trying to decide what they want to do.

 Americans often use the words, though and but, to show contrast or disagreement. They may use these words in specific ways to be more or less forceful.

 In today's report, we will explore how the words though and but are used in everyday conversation.

Though

 In many grammar books, you will see that though introduces a clause that shows an unexpected result.
 For example, you might read a sentence such as this: "Though it was raining, we went for a walk."
 Though is not commonly used this way in everyday conversation.

 Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber are English grammar experts. They say that in conversation, though is commonly used as an adverb. The adverb can show a transition between sentences. In other words, it links ideas between sentences. When though is used as a transition, it shows disagreement or contrast.

It often appears at the end of a sentence.

3 Common Uses of Though in Conversation


 Though has three common uses in conversation, say Conrad and Biber.

#1 Showing contrast with a previous statement

 First, a speaker can use though to express contrast with their own statement.
 So, for example, a speaker talking about a new pair of jeans might say the following:

  "These jeans are a little loose. I like the color, though."

#2 Showing contrast with another speaker's statement

 The second common use of though is to show a contrast with another speaker's point. It does not necessarily mean that one speaker disagrees with the other, it just means that one speaker is adding a contrasting point to the statement of the other speaker.

Here is an example:

 A: These jeans are really nice.
 B: Yeah, they're expensive, though.


#3 Showing disagreement with another speaker

 The third common use of though is to show disagreement with another speaker's previous statement.

Consider this example:

 A: These jeans are really nice!
 B: They're poorly made, though.


 Despite their disagreement, these two speakers are showing a polite way to disagree.
 Why? Because it is a less direct way of disagreeing. Often, Americans prefer less direct ways of speaking particularly when disagreeing.
 A more direct and forceful way of disagreeing would be in the following example:

  A: These jeans are really nice!
  B: No, they are not.

 Some Americans would consider this to be an impolite way to disagree ? especially if the other person was not well known to them!

This is because the language is much more direct and negative.

 What about but in conversation?
 The word but also shows contrast or disagreement. In everyday conversation, but is a conjunction that often appears at the beginning of a sentence.

 Although though and but might seem alike, you will learn that there are important differences between how they are used in conversation.

Consider this example:

  A: I really like those jeans!
  B: But you told me last week that you don't like jeans!


 The second speaker is directly disagreeing with the first person's statement.
 Why did the speaker choose to start the sentence with but?
 The second speaker also could have said, "You told me last week that you don't like jeans, though!"

 The speaker, who disagrees by using the word but, probably has strong feelings about the jeans.
 Starting the sentence with a word ? such as but -- that shows disagreement is a stronger and more forceful way to speak.


Other ways to use ‘but’


 One way that Americans reduce the force of the word but is to put words in front of it. The most common way to do this is to use the word yeah.

 Here is an example of what this sounds like:

  A: I really like those jeans!
  B: Yeah but you told me last week that you don't like jeans!


 This way of disagreeing, even though it is informal, sounds softer and less forceful. Americans may choose to say yeah first because it sets a pleasant tone to the sentence. By beginning the sentence with the agreeable word, yeah, speakers can show that the strength of their disagreement is not very strong.

 Using yeah but is less polite than using though, say Conrad and Biber. In addition, it is less forceful than using but alone.


What can you do?

 Think back to the conversation at the beginning of this story:

  A: Should we try that restaurant? I hear the food is cheap!
  B: Their food is supposed to be bad, though. There's a reason the food is cheap!
  A: Yeah but I need to save money for my Mom's Christmas gift!


 You will notice that the two speakers show contrast or disagreement with the word though. One speaker uses yeah but when disagreeing with the other.

 Learning these ways to disagree is not easy. It can take a long time to learn how grammar, word choice, and culture work together.
 
 However, the next time you are watching an American film or TV show, try to focus on how speakers disagree with each other. You might notice that they disagree, or show contrast, in different ways.

 Think about the situation to understand how and why the speakers might be disagreeing with each other.
 In future Everyday Grammar stories, we will explore these issues in more detail.

 I’m Anne Ball. And I’m John Russell.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:24| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

停まっているときに stopping は使えない

 電車の車内表示が英語や韓国語、中国語になった車輌も増えてきました。こんな表示が出ます。
もうすぐ○○駅に到着します」 という、近未来を表す進行形ですね。

arriving.jpg

 これは正しい使い方です。


 そして、「ただいま○○駅に停車中」 というときに、下の表示が出ます。

stopping.jpg


 しかし、この表示は間違っています

 stop 瞬間動作動詞と言われるものです。

 stop という動詞は、止まった瞬間にその動作は終わってしまいます。ですから、進行形を使ったからといって 「状態」が続いていることを表すことはできないのです。

 例えば、I’m finishing my homework. と言えば、まだ宿題は終わっていません。
そして、My grandfather is dying. と言えば、まだおじいさんは生きています。「死んでいる」ではありません。

 これらと同じで、stopping だと、まだ止まっていません。限りなく 「アキレスと亀」 の状態です。arriving at 〜 は「〜に到着しつつある」 という意味で 「到着している」 ではありません。


 では、「○○駅に停まっている」は、どう言えばよいのでしょうか。

 The train is staying at Chofu Station. だと、なんか夜通し停まっている感じですね。

 ふつうは、The train is standing at Chofu Station. のように言うようです。


 下の本では、こうした文法の微妙な使い分けなどを説明しています。ここからお求めください。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:42| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月17日

春一番

 きょう、関東地方は春一番の強い風が吹きました。
 それで、思い出すのは、キャンディーズの『春一番』です。

 訳してみました。

Melted snow is flowing as a stream
Babies of horsetail are shyly appearing
Spring is coming
Why don’t you take on a little?

Breeze is carrying warm air
A stranger boy came pick up the girl next-door
Spring is coming
Why don’t you take your boyfriend out?

Happiness will not come if you keep crying
Take off your heavy coat and go out
Spring is coming
Why don’t you find a new love?


 ついでに、これもお聞きになってください。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 22:46| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

キム・ジョンナム氏暗殺のニュース(時間的に早いほう)


 こちらのほうが早い情報のニュースです。そして、ずっと短いです。





 South Korean media say the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has been killed in Malaysia.

 A South Korean government official said that Kim Jong Nam was killed Monday, the Yonhap news agency reported.

 The official did not provide additional information.

 Two unidentified female agents reportedly used poisoned needles to kill Kim at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The two then fled the area in a taxi. The women are believed to have been working for North Korea.

 South Korea’s National Intelligence Service neither confirmed nor denied the story.

 Kim Jong Nam spent large amounts of time outside North Korea. He also had voiced disapproval of his family’s control of the country.

 He and his younger brother, North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, are both sons of former North Korean leader Kim Jong Il. However, they had different mothers. The older brother was once considered to be the heir of his father and was expected to lead the country.

 However, Kim Jong Nam fell from favor with his father in 2001. That year, he attempted to enter Japan with a false passport, reportedly to visit Tokyo Disneyland.

 Since that time, he has lived mainly in the Chinese territory of Macau.

 Kim Jong Nam was believed to be close to his uncle, Joang Song Thaek. Joang was considered the second most powerful man in North Korea, but he was executed in 2013. Kim Jong Un reportedly ordered his execution.
 
 In previous years, Kim Jong Nam expressed disinterest in leading North Korea. “Personally, I am against third-generation succession,” he told Japan’s Asahi TV in 2010.

 Kim Jong Il died in December 2011, when Kim Jong Un took power.

 “I hope my younger brother will do his best for the sake of North Koreans’ prosperous lives,” he reportedly said.

 I’m Mario Ritter.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 17:32| Comment(0) | 生活英語