2017年03月09日

Let us eat your lettuce. の場面に、人は何人いる?


 農園でレタス栽培をしている人が1人いました。そこへ人がやってきました。そして、こう言いました。

 Your lettuce looks very delicious. Let us eat your lettuce.

  さあ、この場に人は最低何人いるでしょうか。


 下の辞書の写真を見てください。

let-us.jpg


 
lets.jpg


 1つには「let's は let us の短縮形」とあり、もう1つには「let's do は正式には let us do」だとありますね。

 
 しかし、ふだんの日常会話では、let's let us は区別して使われています。

 Let's go. と言うと、そこにいる全員(2人以上)が出かけます。
 Let us go. と言うと、そこにいるうちの何人かを残して、話し手を含む何人かが出かけることになります。

 ですから、「辞書には let's は let us の短縮形だと書いてあるから、同じ意味ではないのか?」と主張しても、「いや、実際には違う意味で使われている」という返答が返ってくるでしょう。

 
 では、私の過去の記事(3月8日)の「英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制3(完了形)」のところを見てください。ここをクリックすると行けます。

 まん中よりもちょっと下の Past Perfect のところで、次のように言っています。

  Now let us look at the past perfect.

 学習者(リスナー)といっしょに学習を進めているわけだから、Now let's look at .... のほうが適しているように思いませんか。

 ひとつには、Voice of AmericaLearning English という番組が「1分間に100語」という、ナチュラルスピードの3分の2程度のゆっくりとした英語であることが、let us を使っている理由の1つだと考えられますが、下に掲げた3月9日(今日)の記事では、 Let's start with ....Let us move on to .... の両方が使われています。


 結論です。

 私どものオフィスのアメリカ人によると、let uslet's の正式用法として使われることも多いそうです。例えば、アメリカの大統領に側近が、

  Let us go now.

 と言ったら、大統領も含めて、そこにいる全員が「行く」意味合いになるのだそうです。


 で、冒頭のクイズ。

 ここでは、your がミソですね。食べるのは、栽培者を除いた人たちで、少なくとも3人以上はいることになります。もし、Let us eat the lettuce. と言ったら、「2人である」ことも考えられます。



marmalade.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:00| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制4(完了形-2)

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 昨日に引き続き 「時制」 で、きょうは「完了進行形
」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日よりちょっと長く7分40秒あります。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
  また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 This is the last in our four-part series on verb tenses. Make sure you see our episodes on progressive and perfect tenses before trying to learn the perfect progressive tenses.

 For English learners, the perfect progressive tenses can be scary.

 But they are more straightforward than you might think.

 When you talk about grammar, perfect means “complete,” and progressive means “unfinished.”

 Perfect progressive sentences focus on the completion of an action that is, was or will be in progress.

 Think about this sentence in the past perfect progressive:

 “I had been waiting for three years by the time my application was approved.” In this example, the emphasis is on duration of the first verb waiting.

 Perfect progressive tenses often answer the question how long? There are three perfect progressive tenses:
  the present perfect progressive
  the past perfect progressive
  and the future perfect progressive



Present Perfect Progressive

 Let’s start with the present perfect progressive. You form the present perfect progressive by using have been (or has been) followed by an -ing verb.

For instance, “She has been sitting in class since early this morning.” The action, sitting, is continuing. But the emphasis is on the completed part of the action. Here are some more examples:

  I have been waiting for 20 minutes.
  I have been studying since I was a child.
  It has been snowing all day long.


 In all of these sentences, the emphasis is on how the finished activity relates to the present.

 A time reference is not required to use the present perfect progressive. Sometimes we use it to refer to recently completed actions.

 Imagine your friend comes to your house with red, puffy eyes. You might say, “Your eyes are red. Have you been crying?”

 Or you notice that a co-worker is looking tanned. You might ask, “You look tanned. Have you been sunbathing?”

 Remember that stative verbs cannot be used in any progressive tense. A stative verb describes unchanging situations, often mental states such as realize, appear and seem.

 You should not say, “I’ve been knowing you for a long time.” If you have a stative verb, use the present perfect: “I have known you for a long time.”

 Almost all native speakers will contract, or shorten the pronoun that comes before have or has. “I have been” will sound like, “I’ve been.”

 Expert grammarian and teacher Betty Azar tells English learners: “Don’t expect slow, careful pronunciation of helping verbs in normal conversation.”


Past Perfect Progressive

 Let us move on to the past perfect progressive. The past perfect progressive emphasizes the duration of a past action before another action happened.

 For example, “I had been smoking for 10 years before I quit.”

 You form the past perfect progressive by using had been followed by an -ing verb.

 Notice how the past perfect progressive often includes the adverbs for and since to express duration. You will also see the adverbs before, when or by the time used to introduce a second action.

 The second action uses the simple past tense. Here are some more examples:

  I had been studying for 12 years by the time I graduated from high school.
  She had been living there since she was a child.
  He had been teaching for 12 years before he was certified.


 The past perfect progressive can also describe a recently completed action. For instance:

  My clothes were wet because it had been raining.
  He was talking loudly because he had been drinking.


Future Perfect Progressive

 We will end with the future perfect progressive. The future perfect progressive describes the duration of an action as it relates to a future event.

 There are two ways to form the future perfect progressive. Both require two actions. One is by using “will have been” plus a present participle, followed by “when” or “by the time” and the second action.

 For example, “I will have been working for 35 years by the time I retire.” Notice that the second planned action, retire, is in the simple present. The simple future is never used with the second action.

 The other way to form the future perfect progressive is using “be going to have been” plus a present participle followed by “when” or “by the time” and the second action. The order of the actions can be reversed with either form.

 For example, “By the time the plane arrives, I am going to have been waiting for five hours.”

 With the future perfect progressive, it is not always clear if the ---ing verb started in the past or will start in the future. For example, “The doctor will have been working for 24 hours by the time his shift is finished.”

 The future perfect progressive is rare because it is difficult to know the duration of an activity relative to another future event.

 And those are the three perfect progressive tenses in English.

 We have been talking about verb tenses for several weeks now. It is time to move on to other topics. We leave you with a present perfect progressive song by the music band "Foreigner."

   I’ve been waiting for a girl like you
   To come into my life

 I’m John Russell.
 And I’m Jill Robbins.


春は右から来ます。

DSC01265.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:50| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法