2017年03月07日

オバマ前大統領も間違えた文法とは?

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 「時制」をシリーズでアップする予定ですが、急遽、この記事をアップしましょう。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分半です。

 いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできますよ。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 
 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 On March 5, Jazmine Hughes wrote in a New York Times blog,

 “Recently, at an IRL party − that is, a party that takes place ‘in real life,’ as opposed to where I generally live, which is on the Internet − a guest asked a friend and I how we met.”

 The sentence includes a common error I have been seeing and hearing more and more often lately.

 The error is using the subject pronoun “I” when the object pronoun “me” should be used.

 Even President Obama can be heard using “I” for the object of a sentence. At his first press conference, on November 7, 2008, he spoke about being invited to tour the White House. “Well, President Bush graciously invited Michelle and I to -- to meet with him and First Lady Laura Bush.”

The rule for object pronouns

 English has eight subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, you and they. Subject pronouns show the actor in a sentence. For example, in the sentence “I speak English,” “I” is the actor.

 English also has eight object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, you and them. We use an object pronoun to show the receiver of the action in a sentence, as in “She gave the book to me.” In that sentence, “me” is the receiver.

 People often confuse subject pronouns and object pronouns in sentences with two receivers.

 Take the sentence “President Obama gave an award to my brother and me.” We can easily see the need for an object pronoun because of the preposition “to.”

 But some sentences do not have prepositions, as in “Obama asked my brother and me some questions.” The sentence still needs the object pronoun “me.”

 However, some people might want to say “Obama asked my brother and I some questions.” You know that sentence has a grammar error because “I” is not an object pronoun.

Why people say “I” instead of “me”

 I think the confusion about “I” and “me” comes from instruction we get as children: to be polite. When we mention ourselves and another person in a sentence, we are told to put the other person first.

 For example, we might be reminded to say, “My brother and I went to the White House.” Saying “I and my brother went to the White House” is grammatically correct but would sound impolite, or rude.

 So, English speakers who are faced with two people in the object position in a sentence often grab for the phrase “someone and I.” They do not notice the phrase is grammatically incorrect. It just sounds more polite.

 Another theory about the “I” or “me” error comes from a 2009 New York Times article “The I’s Have It.”

 Writers Patricia T. O’Conner and Stewart Kellerman guess that people correct children who use “me” instead of “I” so much, the children grow up using “I” even when it is wrong. They explain the term for this linguistic phenomenon is “hypercorrection.”

 Back to Ms. Hughes, her party and the New York Times blog. Her sentence should be re-written as “…a guest asked a friend and me how we met.” Shortly after I called the error to the newspaper's attention, the sentence was corrected in this way.

  A simple way to check for the correct pronoun in a case like this is mentally to eliminate the second person. Try saying in your head “A guest asked me how we met,” or “A guest asked a friend how we met.” That simple check makes choosing the correct pronoun easier.

 Now you will always know the right pronoun to use –- take it from me!

 I’m Jill Robbins.


Words in This Story

error - n. something that is not correct; a wrong action or statement; mistake

instruction - n. the action or process of teaching : the act of instructing someone

phenomenon - n. something (such as an interesting fact or event) that can be observed and studied and that typically is unusual or difficult to understand or explain fully

hypercorrection n. the mistaken use of a word form or pronunciation based on a false analogy with a correct or prestigious form​

 Now it’s your turn. In the comments section, tell us about your own grammar gripes. What do people say in your language that bothers you?
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:30| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

『TOEICレジスタードマーク L & R Testを使って、英語の4技能を効率的に伸ばす方法』


 上のタイトルの拙著に、すばらしいカスタマーレビューを2ついただきました。的を射た適切なレビューです。ぜひご覧ください。

 ここから進んでください。

 99円です。


4ginou.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:06| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制-2(進行形)

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 昨日に引き続き 「時制」 ですが、きょうは「進行形」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日よりもずっと短くて、6分半です。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 
 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today, we are going to look at the progressive verb tenses. Progressive tenses express actions that are unfinished or in progress. There are three progressive verb tenses: the past progressive, the present progressive, and the future progressive. Progressive tenses are the same as continuous tenses.

 We will start with the present progressive, the most common progressive tense. You form the present progressive tense by using a form of the verb be followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I am watching a movie.

 It is easy to confuse the simple present and the present progressive. What’s the difference between, “It rains in Seattle” and “It is raining in Seattle”?

 “It rains in Seattle” states that it rains in general. It does not necessarily mean that it is raining at the moment of speaking. “It is raining in Seattle” means that the rain started in the past, is happening now, and will probably continue into the future.

 Now, at this time, and currently are common adverbs in the present progressive.

 The present progressive can also express a scheduled event in the future. For example, this sentence is in the present progressive: “She is starting school next semester.

 The meaning here is the same as the sentence in the simple future: “She is going to start school next semester.” The present progressive and simple future (with be going to) sometimes have the same.

 You can also use present progressive with always to say that something disturbs you. “My neighbor is always playing loud music at night” or “I am always making mistakes with verb tenses!


Past Progressive

 Let’s move on to the past progressive. The past progressive describes an event that was in progress in the past. To form the past progressive use was or were followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I was working late last night.

 Sentences in the past progressive often have two actions.

 For example, “It was snowing when the plane landed in Denver.
 Notice that the second action, landed, is in the simple past.

 The past progressive can also express an action in progress interrupted by a second action. “I was running when I slipped and fell” or “I was sleeping when you called.

 It is possible to have two progressive actions in the same sentence if the two actions are happening at the same time. You could say, “I was sleeping when you were working.”


Future Progressive

 The future progressive tense describes an event that will be in progress in the future. To form the future progressive tense, use will be followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I will be waiting for you when you finish work.

 The future progressive can be useful when you are making plans. Imagine your friend wants you to pick her up the airport tomorrow. But you have to work.

 You could tell her, “I’m sorry, but I will be working when your plane gets in.

 You can learn more about future tenses in this previous episode of Everyday Grammar.


Stative Verbs

 There are some verbs that cannot be used in any of the progressive tenses. You would say “I own a car,” not I am owning a car.” Own is a stative verb. Stative verbs describe unchanging conditions or situations. Stative verbs often refer to mental states such as know, realize, like, believe, understand, love, hate, appear, and exist.

 A few verbs have both stative and non-stative meanings. Let’s look at the verb think. “I think the book is good” is stative. The action does not change. “I am thinking about you” is progressive. It shows a temporary, changing action. Sensory verbs like see, taste, feel, smell, and hear work the in the same way.

 Progressive verbs are especially useful for describing changing emotional states. For that reason, they are very common in song lyrics. We will leave you with a few examples.

 I’m John Russell.

 And I’m Jill Robbins.

[John Lennon]
“I was dreaming of the past
And my heart was beating fast
I began to lose control…”

[Styx]
“I’m sailing away
Sail an open course for the virgin sea”

[Adele]
“I'll be waiting for you when
you're ready to love me again
I put my hands up
I'll do everything different
I'll be better to you”


 右に見える『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』では、こうした文法を簡潔に分かりやすく説明しています。


 この花は、オオイヌノフグリです。

DSC01638.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:16| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法