2017年03月03日

英語で英文法を学ぶということ ― 動詞 get の使い方

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、「動詞 get の使い方」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。かなり長くて、10分30秒ありますが、get の使い方がよく分かると思います。
 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。

 英文を追わなくても聴き取れるかもしれません。スマホなどを使って聞いてみましょう。


 From VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 So, Alice, what did you do last night?

 Well, I was at home, getting ready to go to the movies. I was getting my shoes on when I got a feeling that something strange was going to happen.

 I've gotten those feelings, too.

 Then, I left the house, and got a cab, and got to the movies as fast as I could.

 Did you get there on time?

 Yes! But as soon as I got into the theater, I got a phone call from someone whose voice I didn’t recognize. That’s when things started to get weird…



 Did you notice anything unusual in this story? The verb get is used 10 times -- and with several different meanings.

 Get is one of the most commonly used, most tricky, and sometimes most hated words for English learners. When learning this verb, it is best to keep a sense of humor.

 That is because the verb has more than 50 uses, such as when it appears as part of at least 12 phrasal verbs or other expressions.

 Today on Everyday Grammar, we explore this simple three-letter word with many meanings. But don’t worry. By the time you come to the end of the program, we hope you will begin to enjoy this captivating and changeable verb.

 We will consider a few of the most common meanings of get and offer some ideas on how to use the verb.

 Let’s start with a very common meaning of get, which is to receive, obtain, or buy. The structure is:

get + direct object

 Listening or reading for clues and then recognizing the meaning from those clues is the best way of explaining this meaning.

For example, take the following sentence:

  I got an email from my friend Penelope.

 In this sentence, does ‘got’ mean received, obtained, or bought?

 Here, the word got means received. We know that the person did not buy the email. We also know that they did not obtain it, since obtain means to acquire by effort.

 Let’s try another sentence:

  I just got a new sofa!

 In this example, does got mean received, obtained, or bought? It probably means bought, since the speaker does not provide any evidence that it was received.

 But, in this statement, whether the speaker bought the sofa or obtained it in some other way is not very important. The most important thing to know here is that the speaker did not receive the sofa ― they obtained it in some way.

 Now, let’s turn to a different meaning of get. This one means to bring or fetch. The structure is:

get + direct object

 Listen to this example:

  I’m going outside to get the mail.

 Sometimes, however, the structure can be:

get + indirect object + direct object

 Listen to the example:

  Could you get me my phone? It’s in the bedroom upstairs.

 In this sentence, the direct object is my phone and the indirect object is me. This is a structure you can use to ask someone to bring something to you. You would probably not use it unless the thing were fairly close. For example, if you left your mobile phone at a friend’s house, and you will see the friend tomorrow, you would not say:

  Could you get me my phone tomorrow?

 Instead, you would say:
 
  Could you bring me my phone tomorrow?

 Now, you try it. Ask someone to bring something nearby to you.

 Our next meaning of get is to arrive somewhere. There are two structures here. The first is:

get + location adverb

The second is:

get + to + location

 Listen to a few examples:

  What time will you get here?
  I got to Tokyo at 6 a.m.
  I got to the concert late.

 In these examples, the clue to the meaning of get is the name of a place right after the verb, such as “Tokyo,” “the movies,” “here” or “there.”

 Our last meaning of get on today’s program is to become. The structure is:

get + adjective

 Listen to a few examples:

  The food is getting cold.
  I get nervous when I have to speak in public.


 In this use, the verb get simply replaces the verb become. You will recognize this easily when you hear or see an adjective immediately after get.

 Here are three suggestions to help you better understand and use the meanings of get:

Tip #1: Guess the meaning from clues

 Guessing can be your best friend when trying to understand and use the meanings of get. Use context clues to help you know how get is used. Context means words that are used with or next to a specific word or expression that helps explain its meaning.

 Look for a direct object or a location adverb or an adjective before or after the verb get. These will help you to know its intended meaning.

Tip #2: Practice, practice, practice

 Read and listen to as much as you can in English. The more you do this, the more easily you will be able to use clues as a tool to quickly understand meaning. Americans, the British, and other native English speakers can recognize these clues very quickly. You can learn to do this, too! Try to immerse yourself in English by listening to Learning English podcasts, watching movies and YouTube videos, and listening to music.

Tip #3: Use other verbs

 If you are not sure how to use some of the meanings of get, you can instead use verbs with similar meanings. Sometimes the other verbs sound natural, and other times they sound formal. For example, you can say, “I just bought a new sofa!” and it sounds perfectly natural. By comparison, saying, “I arrived home at 10 p.m.” sounds very official. Yet, both are correct and can be used.

Orin Hargraves is a lexicographer. He writes and studies dictionaries. Hargraves recently told Everyday Grammar that, “Many of the jobs that we currently give to get ... can also be expressed by other verbs.” Hargraves’ advice is good advice.

The Everyday Grammar team hopes you enjoyed learning a few of the many meanings of the verb get. So, get going and enjoy this wonderful verb. We've got to go now. But keep listening in the coming weeks for more words with many meanings.

I’m Phil Dierking.
I'm Jill Robbins.
And I'm Alice Bryant.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:27| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

「お嫁にいらした ねえさま」って、誰でしょう?

 今日は雛祭りの日ですね。雛祭りと言えば、「うれしいひな祭り」という歌です。

 「お花をあげましょ 桃の花」 とあるのに、まだまだ寒いですね。どこにも桃の花は咲いていません。この歌は旧暦で歌ったものですからね。

 旧暦で言うと、今年の雛祭りは3月30日。つぼみも大きく膨らんで、咲いている花もあるかもしれませんね。

 実は、この歌には、いくつかの間違いがあるのだそうです。

 2番に「お内裏様と お雛様」とありますが、二人揃って「内裏様」だそうです。だから、「お雛様」は余分だとなります。

 また、3番に「赤いお顔の右大臣」とありますが、白ひげで少し赤ら顔のおじいさんのほうは、内裏様のほうから見て左側なので、右大臣ではないそうです。

 さらに、雛壇の位置から見ても、この二人は大臣ではなく、随身(警護をする人)なんだとか。


 私がきょう書きたかったのは、これではなく、次のくだりです。

   お嫁にいらした ねえさまに
   よく似た官女の 白い顔


 ネットで検索すると、この「ねえさま」というのは、作詞家であるサトウハチローの姉が十八で嫁ぎ、すぐに結核で亡くなってしまったことを偲んで書かれたという説明がよく出てきます。

 つまり、「ねえさま」は、この歌の主人公であろう女の子(たぶん)の、よその家に嫁いでいった実の姉ということになりますね。

 でも、私はこの説明には同調しません

 詩や小説などの文学作品の裏に隠されたものが何だったのかを探ろうとするするのが、文学を研究することの神髄なのかもしれませんが、こうした詩に使われた文言の解釈は、その字面でのみ考えるべきではないでしょうか。

 「お嫁にいらした」という敬語は、身内にはまず使いません。古い時代の小説などを読んでいると、父母や兄姉に対して敬語を使っていたりしますが、第三者に身内のことを伝えるときには、この歌詞のような敬語は使いません。

 この「ねえさま」というのは、兄嫁以外にはないと考えます。

 この歌の主人公が10歳前後だと考えると、長兄が二十歳を超えていることは十分にあり得ます。そして、その長兄に十代後半の女性が嫁いで来たのでしょう。おそらく前年の秋に。

 新しい兄嫁をまぶしい気持ちで歌ったのが、

  お嫁にいらした ねえさまに
  よく似た官女の 白い顔

 
だと、私は思うのです。


 この本で、ひな祭りのことを英語で紹介しましょう。

GyoujiAnnai.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 11:04| Comment(0) | 雑文