2017年03月14日

graduate from college、be graduated from college、あるいは graduate college のどれが正しい?


 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、graduate を使った表現の変遷についてです。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分04秒あります。





For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

This week’s Everyday Grammar is by a guest author, David Sullivan. He is Assistant Managing Editor at The Philadelphia Inquirer, and Vice President of the American Copy Editors Society.

 Part of the reason that English has grown as a world language is that it adjusts easily to change. Unlike some other languages, there is no "official" English that must be used generation after generation, and there never has been.

 However, this means that what one was taught as a child in school may be out of fashion a couple of decades later. Slang is meant to come and go, but when common phrases change, it can make speakers feel "wrong" because they were taught that something else is "right."

 One example of this is a term linked to school itself. Today, it is common for people to say that they "graduated high school" or college. The word "graduated" has two common meanings. One is to mark off a series. The easiest way to think of this is to go back to high school chemistry class and remember the tubes used for experiments. They are called "graduated cylinders" because they have lines to show how much liquid to add: 10 milliliters, 20 mL, and so on. The lines make up a series.

 The other meaning is closely related. As you move through school, you cross off a series of achievements: grade school, middle school, high school, and college. So, in a way, school itself is "graduated."

 So, when people used to speak of getting a diploma, they said they "graduated from college." "To graduate college" would have meant, literally, to mark it off by year – freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior. Similarly, "to graduate to college" would have meant to complete high school and move up to the next level. The use of the preposition was important.

 But as happens often in English, when people understand your meaning, smaller words, verb forms, and other parts of speech can disappear. "I graduated college today" is easy to say. Sometimes written language reflects the spoken one, sometimes it does not. In this case, usage has moved rapidly toward "graduated college" as acceptable, if not correct.

 This may upset people who were taught that you had to use "from" to be correct. But this is not the first time this phrase has been simplified. It used to be that you said, "I was graduated from college," instead of, "I graduated from college." The change may reflect how we think about the student and the university. Before, the emphasis was on the college: It graduated you. Now, the emphasis is on the student: I graduated.

 A search in Google's NGram Viewer shows a sharp fall in the number of times people used "was graduated from" between 1920 and 2000. The phrase "graduate college" increased from 1930 to 2000.

 You can’t predict what English will keep and what it will lose. Who could imagine that we would still say we "dial" a phone number when we now push buttons on our cell? Yet we know what it means. And, of course, "dial," like "text," at one time was only a noun, not a verb. You looked at a sundial or the dial of a compass.

 People complain that English uses too many odd spellings, like "through" or "doughnut." Many want to change them to simpler spellings. When it comes to speaking, though, modern English speakers get to the point quickly. The question is, why are we complaining?

I’m Pete Musto.
And I'm Jill Robbins.

_________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

generation – n. a group of individuals born and living about the same time.

slang - n. words that are not considered part of the standard vocabulary of a language and that are used very informally in speech

graduate - v. to earn a degree or diploma from a school, college, or university

graduated - adj.. marked with lines for measuring

cylinder - n. a shape that has straight sides and two circular ends

emphasis - n. special importance or attention given to something

complain - v. to say or write that you do not like something


Now it’s your turn. Do people complain about changes in your native language? Have you noticed other changes in the way English is used? Let us know in the comments section.


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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:47| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

TOEIC の満点は、なぜ1000点ではなく990点?


 TOEIC には、リスニングセクションに100問、リーディングセクションに100問の、計200問ありますね。そして、スコアは点刻みです。348点というような1点刻みのスコアはありません。

 200問で5点刻みですから、1問あたり5点ということになります。200×5=1000で、満点は1000点ではないかという感じですが、990点ですね。

 なぜでしょうか。

 昔「2000年問題」というのがありました。西暦(グレゴリオ暦)2000年になるとコンピュータが誤作動する可能性があるとされた問題ですね。

 その原因は、プログラムの日付を扱うとき、西暦の4桁のうちの上位2桁を無視して、下2桁だけを処理対象にしたことにありました。

 1960年代や70年代に作られたプログラムならまだしも、あと20年もしないうちに2000年がやってくるという80年代になってから作られたプログラムにも、下2桁だけで処理しようとするものが数多くあったのでした。

 「2000年がやってくるのは分かっているだろうに」と思いましたが、コンピューターのプログラムというのは、2桁を処理するのと4桁を処理するのとでは、負荷が大きく違ってくるのだそうです。それで、分かっていながら下2桁だけを使ったというわけです。

 TOEIC の満点990点にもこれが影響しています。

 TOEIC を開発していたのは1970年代です。上で述べたように、コンピューターの処理能力はまだまだ低く、満点を1000点にしてしまうと、それだけ高度なプログラムを構築する必要が生じることになります。

 滅多に出ない満点(1000点)のために(当時は、満点はほとんど出ないだろうと思われていました)、4桁を計算するプログラム作りに苦労するくらいなら、満点を495+495にし、トータルスコアを3桁のままの990点にしておくほうが現実的だったというわけです。

 割と単純な理由からだったのですね。

 TOEICのスコアに関する情報は、この本に詳しく出ています。990円ではなく、99円ですよ。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:16| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月13日

消えゆく3つの文法

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは「Three Grammar Rules That Are Dying
」 というタイトルです。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。6分50秒あります。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
  また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。
 右に見える『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』も、どうぞご活用ください。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today we have good news for English learners.

 Just as words come and go in English, so do grammar rules. Today we will show you three difficult grammar rules that are disappearing from American English.


Don’t end a sentence with a preposition

 When I was in school, my English teacher told me that it is wrong to end a sentence with a preposition. For example, “Who are you talking to?” The last word of the sentence, to, is a preposition. In traditional grammar, you would have to move the preposition before the subject.

“To whom are you talking?”


 The rule applies to statements as well as questions.

 “I know where you’re from,” would be, “I know from where you come.” Today, it sounds very old--fashioned to speak this way.

 The rule against ending a sentence with a preposition goes back to the 18th century, when it was fashionable to borrow grammar rules from Latin. British grammarians celebrated Latin as a pure and logical language. They thought they could improve English by importing Latin grammar rules.

 One of the Latin rules that survives in English is the ban on ending a sentence with a preposition. But some of the most common phrases in everyday English ignore the rule.

  Who are you talking to?
  I don’t know what you’re talking about.
  Who are you waiting for?

 Did you notice how all of these sentences end in prepositions? If you followed the Latin grammar rule, they would sound like this:

  To whom are you talking?
  I don’t know about what you are talking.
  For whom are you waiting?


 As you might hear, these sentences sound overly formal, even a bit snobbish. The word order, borrowed from Latin, does not feel natural in English.

 Fortunately, the prohibition against ending a sentence with a preposition is disappearing. A large number of writers and editors say it is acceptable to end a sentence with a preposition. The Economist, a 150--year-old British news magazine, called the rule “an invented bit of silliness rightly ignored by many excellent publications.”


Whom

 Another rule that is disappearing is the requirement of using whom when referring to an object pronoun.

 Whom is the object form of who. Grammatically speaking, whom has the same function as other object pronouns, such as me, him, her, and them. For example, “There’s the man about whom I was speaking.”

 If you put a preposition before whom, you can easily avoid ending a sentence with a preposition. For example, “Who did you go with?” becomes very the formal “With whom did you go?”

 Does all this sound unnecessary and confusing? It is.

 Fortunately, whom is rarely used in spoken American English today. More and more publications have stopped using it. In fact, whom has been dying for the past 200 years.

 But it still has a place in formal writing. And test makers often make questions with whom to confuse students. A few pronouns have died completely, including ye, thee, thy, and thine. They do, however, still appear in religious texts and classic literature.


The singular their, they, them

 A third dying rule involves third-person pronouns. English does not have a single word to say both he and she. In other words, there is no gender-neutral singular third--person pronoun. So what do you say when you do not know if someone is male or female?
 
 In the past, people used the male pronoun he to refer to all people. “Every student has his own opinion.” In later years, his or her came into use. “Everybody has his or her own opinion.” The change from his to his or her reflected the power of the women’s movement in the 1970s.

 But many speakers found that his or her sounded a little strange, especially in conversation.

 Today more people say, “Every student has their own opinion.” This example uses the plural their with the singular student. Their means the subject could be male or female. But it breaks a very old and very basic grammar rule: pronouns and their antecedents are supposed to agree in number.

 But when you say, “Every student has their own opinion,” the singular student does not match the plural their. So is it wrong to say, “Every student has their own opinion”? Well, it depends on who (or whom!) you ask.

 More and more mainstream media organizations are allowing they, them, and their as a gender--neutral pronoun. But disagreement remains. Like fashion and etiquette, grammar changes over time.

 ​Why not invent a gender--neutral pronoun for English? After all, languages like Swedish and Indonesian have one. Plenty of people have tried. However, more than 100 attempts to create a gender- -neutral pronoun in English have failed.

I’m Jill Robbins.
And I'm John Russell.

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 18:35| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

by のつかない受身形の行為主は、誰?



 英語の受身形の文は、<主語+be動詞+過去分詞+by+行為主>だと学習しますね。

  His son broke the window.
     ↓
  The window was broken by his son.


のように、by のあとに行為主を続けますね。ですが、下の文のように <be動詞+過去分詞+with>など、by ではない前置詞が続くと習う文もあったりします。

  The streets were covered with snow this morning.

 ですが、この with snowsnow は行為主ではありませんね。with は 「材料・成分」 を表す前置詞です。

 by ... が省略されている受身形でも、実際には下の文のように行為主があることは多いわけですよね。by ... は省略されますが、people living there が行為主であることははっきりしています。

  English is spoken in Canada (by people living there).

 しかし、上の The streets were covered .... の文では、行為主ははっきりしませんね。誰なのでしょう?

 このほかにも、I’m tired. とか I was born in 1990. など、人生の節目を表す表現や心情を表す表現などでは、by ... のない受動態が使われます。

 こうした文の「tired born は形容詞だ」という意見もありますが、もともとは過去分詞ですね。

 さて、こういった文の行為主を God(神)だと考えてみたらどうでしょうか。生まれることや結婚のこと、また心の状態などはすべて神のなせる業だと考えると得心が行きます。

  The streets were covered with snow this morning by God.
  I was born in 1990 by God.
  I'll be pleased by God if you help me.



 これは私の勝手な解釈です。あまり信じませんように。

 『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』は、こちらからどうぞ。


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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:53| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月10日

言語習得能力に「臨界期」なんてあるのか?


 3年前になりますが、青梅市の梅園が病気で伐採されるというので見に行ったことがあります。そのとき、2組の東南アジア系の母子を見かけました。

 母親は共に30代の半ばあたりで、子どもたちは共に小学校の低学年という感じでした。母親同士は彼らの国の言葉で話していましたが、子どもたちは日本語で話していました。

 この光景から、「子供は言語習得が速いからなぁ」と言うのは早計です。

 同じ国の出身であろう2人の大人が連れ立ってやってきたことから察するに、この母親二人は、ふだんもいっしょに行動することが多く、あまり日本人と接触していないのでしょう。

 逆に、子どもたちはおそらく日本の小学校に通っているのでしょう。そして、学校では当然、日本語で授業を受け、ほかの日本人の子どもたちと日本語を使って接していると思われます。

 この親子の場合、日本語に接する時間が圧倒的に違うはずです。

 また、海外赴任した家族のうち、親よりも子のほうが英語を早くうまくしゃべれるようになったという話もよく聞きます。これも結局、上記のようにどれだけ多く現地の人たちと接したかでしょう。

 それと、子どもたちが早くうまく英語をしゃべれるようになったとは言え、その内容を話題にする人はあまりいませんね。


 第二言語習得(母語でも)の時期を話題にするときによく使われるのが、レネバーグが1967年に主張した「言語獲得の臨界期」説ですね。
 それによると、言語の臨界期は10〜12歳前後であり、その時期を過ぎると急速に言語習得能力が衰えていくそうです。

 そして、英語教育者の中には、この説を取り上げ、なぜか「10〜12歳を過ぎると外国語の習得ができなくなる」という話をする人もいます。

 「臨界期」を検索したところ、Wikipedia に次のようなくだりがありました。

 2000年にRobert DeKeyserがハンガリー人の移民コミュニティで、英語能力とアメリカ合衆国への移住時期、および外国語学習に関する適性の調査を行った結果によると、16歳以前にアメリカへ移住した人は、みな高い英語力を示したのに対して、それ以降の年齢で移住した人については個人の素質によって言語能力に差がみられたという。

 これも、まったく上で述べた同じ理由からだと思います。

 16歳以上になると、だれでも無差別に接触して会話する傾向が少なくなってきます。自分と考えが同じだったり似ていたりする人たちと接触しがちです。
 ですから、16歳以降に移住すれば、現地のアメリカ人たちより、いっしょに移住した自国民たちとの接触がより多くなるでしょう。そうすれば、当然、上の Wikipedia の結果になってしまうわけです。
 
 言語の臨界期説で取り上げられる説に、オオカミに育てられた姉妹の話がありますね。
 
 親に捨てられてオオカミに育てられ、発見されたあと人間に育てられたが、結局、言葉をはっきり話すことができなかったという話です。

 この話は、一般人の言語習得能力とは関係がないのではないでしょうか。

 なぜ親はかわいいはずの子どもたちを捨てたのでしょう? 知的能力があまりにも低すぎて、親は悲観したのではないでしょうか。
 つまり、生まれてからそのまま育てられても、言語習得すらままならなかったのではないかと、私は勝手に考えています。


 さて、近年、外国語習得能力は、大人と子供のあいだに差がないという説が有力になってきています。ある学者によると、逆に50歳を超えた大人のほうが、外国語習得能力に優れているとも言われています。
 
 これは、理性で考えながら外国語を習得していくからです。
 つまり、どの時点でどのような学習が効率的なのかを判断できるからです。

 大人の人で、現在、英語をマスターしたと言われている人たちの多くは、10〜12歳以前に英語を学んだ人ではないはずです。
 逆に、例えば芸能人の家族でインターナショナルスクールに通った人に、英語学会などで活躍しているという話を聞きません。


 どの時点でどんな学習が効率的なのかは、この本をご覧ください。


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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:29| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― amplifier と downtoner の使い方

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは「amplifier と downtoner
」 です。
amplifier と downtoner が日本語の文法用語で何を指すのかは、聞いて判断してみましょう。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日よりちょっと長く8分30秒あります。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
  また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。
 右に見える『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』も、どうぞご活用ください。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 From VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Imagine you are at a business meeting.

 You have just presented a plan to your business partners. They want to give suggestions for how to make your plan better.

 The conversation might sound like this:

  A: I really like your plan!
  B: Yes, it's pretty good … but it needs a little revising.
  A: Of course, you did a very good job. But you might need to consider a few more points.
  B: Yes, it will probably be more effective if you highlight the staffing requirements and expand on the budget.


 Whether you like business or not, this conversation gives you important grammar information that you can use in just about any situation.

 In particular, the exchange offers examples of some of the most important adverbs that you will hear in everyday speech.

 This week, we will explore special adverbs that increase or decrease the force of a statement. These adverbs are sometimes called amplifiers or downtoners.

What are adverbs? What are amplifiers?

 Adverbs are words that modify, or change, the meaning of adjectives, verbs, and sometimes entire sentences. They are often used to show time, a way of doing something, place, or degree -- a measure of something.

 Some kinds of adverbs act as amplifiers. The word amplify means to make something stronger. So these amplifiers make the meaning of an adjective or sentence stronger.

 In American English, amplifiers have three common uses: increasing intensity, expressing certainty and showing precision. This information comes from Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber, two experts on English grammar.

 Words such as really and very are among the most common that increase the intensity of a statement. They usually modify an adjective.

 Take the adjective good, for example. Imagine you are trying some food that your friends cooked.

 Perhaps you want to tell them, "This food is good."

 You could increase the intensity of your statement by using the word very:

  "This food is very good."

 You could express certainty by using an amplifier such as definitely:

  "This is definitely the best food I've ever had."

 Or you could use an amplifier to show precision:

  "At exactly 5:13 p.m. on February 6th, I ate the best food I've ever had in my life!"


What are downtoners?

 Other kinds of adverbs act as downtoners. Downtoners are the opposite of amplifiers. They reduce the force of a statement or express doubt. In other words, they set the tone of a statement. You can remember the term 'downtoner' by thinking about what it does: toning down a statement.

 Downtoners have three common functions: reducing intensity, expressing doubt or showing imprecision. Three common downtoners in conversational English are pretty, maybe and probably, say Conrad and Biber.

 How can you use downtoners to change the meaning of the statement?

 Take our earlier example: "This food is good."

 If you wanted to reduce the intensity of your statement, you could say:

  "This food is pretty good."

 You could show doubt, even raise questions, by saying:

  "This is maybe the best food I've ever had."

 Or,

  "This is probably the best food I've ever had."

 These statements express someone’s opinion about the food. But they are not as strong as the example sentences that use amplifiers. In other words, saying "This food is pretty good" is not as forceful as saying, "This food is really good."

Amplifiers and downtoners in a conversation

 So what does this discussion of food have to do with the exchange we heard at the beginning of this report?

 Let's think back to the business conversation:

  A: I really like your plan!
  B: Yes, it's pretty good … but it needs a little revising.
  A: Of course, you did a very good job, but you might need to consider a few more points.
  B: Yes, it will probably be more effective if you highlight the staffing requirements and expand on the budget.


 You might notice that one of the speakers uses amplifiers such as really and very. She is using these words to give more force to her statement. She is probably more excited about the business plan.

 The second speaker uses downtoners -- the words pretty and probably, for example. So you might suspect that he is more guarded about the plan. Maybe he has doubts that the new plan will be better.

 The amplifiers and downtoners they use are also among the most common ones that you will hear in American English. These words are useful in a number of settings. They are polite and acceptable in almost any situation.

Amplifiers and downtoners in writing

 Remember this: the amplifiers and downtoners we have discussed today are common in conversation.

 Different amplifiers and downtoners are more common in writing. For example, you are more likely to read words such as indeed, certainly, or approximately than you are to hear them in everyday conversation.

 If you use these amplifiers and downtoners in conversation, your speech will take on a very official sound. While that might be a good idea in a formal presentation or speech, it might not be the best choice for an everyday conversation.

 Amplifiers and downtoners are not always necessary to use in a sentence. But when you see or hear them, you are getting information about the thoughts and feelings of another person. You are learning about how strongly they feel about something.

 And that's the end of this really long report!

 I'm Jill Robbins.
 And I'm John Russell.


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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:49| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月09日

Let us eat your lettuce. の場面に、人は何人いる?


 農園でレタス栽培をしている人が1人いました。そこへ人がやってきました。そして、こう言いました。

 Your lettuce looks very delicious. Let us eat your lettuce.

  さあ、この場に人は最低何人いるでしょうか。


 下の辞書の写真を見てください。

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 1つには「let's は let us の短縮形」とあり、もう1つには「let's do は正式には let us do」だとありますね。

 
 しかし、ふだんの日常会話では、let's let us は区別して使われています。

 Let's go. と言うと、そこにいる全員(2人以上)が出かけます。
 Let us go. と言うと、そこにいるうちの何人かを残して、話し手を含む何人かが出かけることになります。

 ですから、「辞書には let's は let us の短縮形だと書いてあるから、同じ意味ではないのか?」と主張しても、「いや、実際には違う意味で使われている」という返答が返ってくるでしょう。

 
 では、私の過去の記事(3月8日)の「英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制3(完了形)」のところを見てください。ここをクリックすると行けます。

 まん中よりもちょっと下の Past Perfect のところで、次のように言っています。

  Now let us look at the past perfect.

 学習者(リスナー)といっしょに学習を進めているわけだから、Now let's look at .... のほうが適しているように思いませんか。

 ひとつには、Voice of AmericaLearning English という番組が「1分間に100語」という、ナチュラルスピードの3分の2程度のゆっくりとした英語であることが、let us を使っている理由の1つだと考えられますが、下に掲げた3月9日(今日)の記事では、 Let's start with ....Let us move on to .... の両方が使われています。


 結論です。

 私どものオフィスのアメリカ人によると、let uslet's の正式用法として使われることも多いそうです。例えば、アメリカの大統領に側近が、

  Let us go now.

 と言ったら、大統領も含めて、そこにいる全員が「行く」意味合いになるのだそうです。


 で、冒頭のクイズ。

 ここでは、your がミソですね。食べるのは、栽培者を除いた人たちで、少なくとも3人以上はいることになります。もし、Let us eat the lettuce. と言ったら、「2人である」ことも考えられます。



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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:00| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制4(完了形-2)

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 昨日に引き続き 「時制」 で、きょうは「完了進行形
」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日よりちょっと長く7分40秒あります。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
  また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 This is the last in our four-part series on verb tenses. Make sure you see our episodes on progressive and perfect tenses before trying to learn the perfect progressive tenses.

 For English learners, the perfect progressive tenses can be scary.

 But they are more straightforward than you might think.

 When you talk about grammar, perfect means “complete,” and progressive means “unfinished.”

 Perfect progressive sentences focus on the completion of an action that is, was or will be in progress.

 Think about this sentence in the past perfect progressive:

 “I had been waiting for three years by the time my application was approved.” In this example, the emphasis is on duration of the first verb waiting.

 Perfect progressive tenses often answer the question how long? There are three perfect progressive tenses:
  the present perfect progressive
  the past perfect progressive
  and the future perfect progressive



Present Perfect Progressive

 Let’s start with the present perfect progressive. You form the present perfect progressive by using have been (or has been) followed by an -ing verb.

For instance, “She has been sitting in class since early this morning.” The action, sitting, is continuing. But the emphasis is on the completed part of the action. Here are some more examples:

  I have been waiting for 20 minutes.
  I have been studying since I was a child.
  It has been snowing all day long.


 In all of these sentences, the emphasis is on how the finished activity relates to the present.

 A time reference is not required to use the present perfect progressive. Sometimes we use it to refer to recently completed actions.

 Imagine your friend comes to your house with red, puffy eyes. You might say, “Your eyes are red. Have you been crying?”

 Or you notice that a co-worker is looking tanned. You might ask, “You look tanned. Have you been sunbathing?”

 Remember that stative verbs cannot be used in any progressive tense. A stative verb describes unchanging situations, often mental states such as realize, appear and seem.

 You should not say, “I’ve been knowing you for a long time.” If you have a stative verb, use the present perfect: “I have known you for a long time.”

 Almost all native speakers will contract, or shorten the pronoun that comes before have or has. “I have been” will sound like, “I’ve been.”

 Expert grammarian and teacher Betty Azar tells English learners: “Don’t expect slow, careful pronunciation of helping verbs in normal conversation.”


Past Perfect Progressive

 Let us move on to the past perfect progressive. The past perfect progressive emphasizes the duration of a past action before another action happened.

 For example, “I had been smoking for 10 years before I quit.”

 You form the past perfect progressive by using had been followed by an -ing verb.

 Notice how the past perfect progressive often includes the adverbs for and since to express duration. You will also see the adverbs before, when or by the time used to introduce a second action.

 The second action uses the simple past tense. Here are some more examples:

  I had been studying for 12 years by the time I graduated from high school.
  She had been living there since she was a child.
  He had been teaching for 12 years before he was certified.


 The past perfect progressive can also describe a recently completed action. For instance:

  My clothes were wet because it had been raining.
  He was talking loudly because he had been drinking.


Future Perfect Progressive

 We will end with the future perfect progressive. The future perfect progressive describes the duration of an action as it relates to a future event.

 There are two ways to form the future perfect progressive. Both require two actions. One is by using “will have been” plus a present participle, followed by “when” or “by the time” and the second action.

 For example, “I will have been working for 35 years by the time I retire.” Notice that the second planned action, retire, is in the simple present. The simple future is never used with the second action.

 The other way to form the future perfect progressive is using “be going to have been” plus a present participle followed by “when” or “by the time” and the second action. The order of the actions can be reversed with either form.

 For example, “By the time the plane arrives, I am going to have been waiting for five hours.”

 With the future perfect progressive, it is not always clear if the ---ing verb started in the past or will start in the future. For example, “The doctor will have been working for 24 hours by the time his shift is finished.”

 The future perfect progressive is rare because it is difficult to know the duration of an activity relative to another future event.

 And those are the three perfect progressive tenses in English.

 We have been talking about verb tenses for several weeks now. It is time to move on to other topics. We leave you with a present perfect progressive song by the music band "Foreigner."

   I’ve been waiting for a girl like you
   To come into my life

 I’m John Russell.
 And I’m Jill Robbins.


春は右から来ます。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:50| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月08日

日本人は英語をしゃべるとバカになるのか。

 先週、あるシンポジウムがあり、聞きに行きました。
 その中で、一人の登壇者の先生(東大教授)が、次のような話をされました。

 「7,8人の日本人だけしか参加していない会議で、みんなが英語で話すことがあります。すると途端に知能指数が半分くらいになったような内容しか出てきません。」

 これを聞いて思い出すのが、いくつかの大学で行われている英語弁論大会です。

 ある女子大学で行われる弁論大会には、私のオフィスでは、毎回(過去10年くらい)賞品を提供しています。一度も「見に来てください」という誘いもなかったので、3年ほど前に、こちらから「見せてほしい」という要望を出して見に行きました。

 そこで思ったのは、弁論の内容が大学生にしては幼稚だなと感じたことです。参加者たちは全国の地方大会を勝ち抜いてきた精鋭ばかりです。

 すばらしい英語の発音とパフォーマンスで、一見(聴いてすぐは)すごいなぁという印象なのですが、聴いていくうちにだんだんと「あれ、この内容だと、日本語にすれば中学生の弁論大会のレベルでは?」と思えてしまいました。

 「何をしたか」という事実を述べるだけの話が多く、大学生の主張であれば、もう少し踏み込んだ考察がほしいものだと思ったのでした。

 思うに、これは弁論の原稿を書くときに、おそらく初めから英語で考えているからではないでしょうか。昔から Think in English と言われていましたし。

 たぶん日本語で書き始めてはいけないと思う学生も多いのでしょう。

 しかし、哲学者・思想家の内田樹氏は次のように言っています。

 「母語はあらゆる知性的・情緒的なイノベーションの培養基である。私は母語によってしか『喉元まで出かかったアイディア』を言葉にすることができない。後天的な努力によって英語で読んだり、書いたり、話したり、場合によっては考えたりすることも可能だが、英語で“創造する”ことはできない。」

 つまり、弁論の原稿を書く際も、やはり日本語で書き始めたほうがよいように思います。それを英訳し、ネイティブの先生あるいは友人にチェックしてもらいながら推敲を重ねていけば、もっと掘り下げた深い内容の主張になるのではないでしょうか。

 この大学での弁論大会のあと、東京大学で行われた弁論大会も聞きましたが、同じようなことを感じました。

 中学校や高校の教科書を見ても、英語で書かれているために立派な内容に思えてしまいますが、日本語に訳してみると、まるっきり幼稚です。
 例えば、次のような内容です。中学2年の教科書ですが。

 I'm a junior high school student. Today, I went to the park with my friend Taro. I played soccer with him in the park. It was fun.

 これを日本語にすると、「きょう友だちと公園に行きました。サッカーをしました。楽しかったです」となり、まるで小学2年生の作文ですね。

 語彙力が足りないのだから仕方がないとも言えますが、やさしいレベルの単語を使っても、内容の高い文は作れるはずです。アメリカの大統領の演説などは、やさしい単語ばかりです。

 アメリカの国民は、英語の母語話者ばかりではないからです。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 18:39| Comment(0) | 生活英語

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制3(完了形)

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 昨日に引き続き 「時制」 ですが、きょうは「>完了形
」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日と同じ6分半です。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 完了形の「経験用法」、「継続用法」、「完了・結果用法」をどのように説明しているのかに注意してください。
  また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today, we are going to talk about the perfect verb tenses. Perfect tenses generally focus on how a past action affects the present. For example, “I have already eaten.”  The suggestion is that the speaker is not hungry.

 Perfect verb tenses are the most difficult for English learners. The term “perfect” can be confusing. What does grammar have to do with not making mistakes? When you are talking about grammar, perfect has a different meaning. It comes from the Latin word perfectum, which means “complete.”

 The most important thing to remember is the perfect tenses always refer to completed actions. If you get confused, try replacing “perfect” with “completed,” and the time relationship should become clearer.


Present Perfect

 We will start with the present perfect. You form the present perfect using has or have followed by a past participle verb. For example, “I have seen Star Wars.”

 The use of the present perfect here gives us three pieces of information.
 First, it tells us that the event is finished.
 Second, it tells us that the exact time of the action is unknown or unimportant.
 Third, it suggests that the experience of seeing Star Wars has some effect in the present.

 One of the most difficult distinctions for English learners to make is the difference between the simple past and present perfect.

 Remember, when there is a specific time, you use the simple past. In the sentence “I saw Star Wars last night,” the adverb last night is a specific time.

 You cannot say “I have seen Star Wars last night.” But, you could say, “I have seen Star Wars before” or “in the past” or “three times.”

 You should also use the present perfect to refer to a repeated action in the past. For example, “I have taken that test four times.” The exact time of each action is not important.

 You can also use the present perfect to describe an action that did not happen, using the adverb never. “I have never traveled outside of my country” and “I have never smoked in my entire life.” Something that did not happen in the past, like not traveling and not smoking, can also have an effect in the present.

 The adverbs never, already, yet and so far are common in the present perfect. Adverbs are often the best indicators of which verb tense to use.


Past Perfect

 Now let us look at the past perfect. The past perfect describes an activity that was finished before another event in the past. For example, “She had already had a baby before she graduated.”

 To form the past perfect, use had followed by a past participle verb. For the second action, use before or by the time followed by the simple past verb. Imagine you were at a New Year’s Eve party, but you fell asleep before midnight. You could say, “I had already fallen asleep before the New Year came.”

 You can use the past perfect to talk about how an experience from the distant past relates to an experience from the more recent past. For example, “The soldier wasn’t scared because he had already been in battle before.”

 In other words, battle was not a new experience for the soldier.

 If the time relationship is clear, you can choose between the past perfect and the simple past. “My grandfather passed away before I was born,” has the same meaning as “My grandfather had passed away before I was born.”

 The past perfect just emphasizes that the first action was completed before the second action.


Future Perfect

 Let us move on to the future perfect. Use the future perfect when you know that one future action will be completed before another future action. For example, “I will have graduated from college before my little brother graduates from high school.”

 The future perfect has very limited use because we rarely know a future sequence of events with any certainty. When it is used, the future perfect usually refers to major life events that are planned years in advance.

 And those are the three perfect tenses. Join us next week on Everyday Grammar for an explanation of the perfect progressive tenses.

 I’m John Russell.
 And I’m Ashley Thompson.


 この花がなぜオオイヌノフグリと呼ばれるのかは、実を見ると分かります。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:47| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月07日

オバマ前大統領も間違えた文法とは?

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 「時制」をシリーズでアップする予定ですが、急遽、この記事をアップしましょう。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分半です。

 いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできますよ。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 
 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 On March 5, Jazmine Hughes wrote in a New York Times blog,

 “Recently, at an IRL party − that is, a party that takes place ‘in real life,’ as opposed to where I generally live, which is on the Internet − a guest asked a friend and I how we met.”

 The sentence includes a common error I have been seeing and hearing more and more often lately.

 The error is using the subject pronoun “I” when the object pronoun “me” should be used.

 Even President Obama can be heard using “I” for the object of a sentence. At his first press conference, on November 7, 2008, he spoke about being invited to tour the White House. “Well, President Bush graciously invited Michelle and I to -- to meet with him and First Lady Laura Bush.”

The rule for object pronouns

 English has eight subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, you and they. Subject pronouns show the actor in a sentence. For example, in the sentence “I speak English,” “I” is the actor.

 English also has eight object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, you and them. We use an object pronoun to show the receiver of the action in a sentence, as in “She gave the book to me.” In that sentence, “me” is the receiver.

 People often confuse subject pronouns and object pronouns in sentences with two receivers.

 Take the sentence “President Obama gave an award to my brother and me.” We can easily see the need for an object pronoun because of the preposition “to.”

 But some sentences do not have prepositions, as in “Obama asked my brother and me some questions.” The sentence still needs the object pronoun “me.”

 However, some people might want to say “Obama asked my brother and I some questions.” You know that sentence has a grammar error because “I” is not an object pronoun.

Why people say “I” instead of “me”

 I think the confusion about “I” and “me” comes from instruction we get as children: to be polite. When we mention ourselves and another person in a sentence, we are told to put the other person first.

 For example, we might be reminded to say, “My brother and I went to the White House.” Saying “I and my brother went to the White House” is grammatically correct but would sound impolite, or rude.

 So, English speakers who are faced with two people in the object position in a sentence often grab for the phrase “someone and I.” They do not notice the phrase is grammatically incorrect. It just sounds more polite.

 Another theory about the “I” or “me” error comes from a 2009 New York Times article “The I’s Have It.”

 Writers Patricia T. O’Conner and Stewart Kellerman guess that people correct children who use “me” instead of “I” so much, the children grow up using “I” even when it is wrong. They explain the term for this linguistic phenomenon is “hypercorrection.”

 Back to Ms. Hughes, her party and the New York Times blog. Her sentence should be re-written as “…a guest asked a friend and me how we met.” Shortly after I called the error to the newspaper's attention, the sentence was corrected in this way.

  A simple way to check for the correct pronoun in a case like this is mentally to eliminate the second person. Try saying in your head “A guest asked me how we met,” or “A guest asked a friend how we met.” That simple check makes choosing the correct pronoun easier.

 Now you will always know the right pronoun to use –- take it from me!

 I’m Jill Robbins.


Words in This Story

error - n. something that is not correct; a wrong action or statement; mistake

instruction - n. the action or process of teaching : the act of instructing someone

phenomenon - n. something (such as an interesting fact or event) that can be observed and studied and that typically is unusual or difficult to understand or explain fully

hypercorrection n. the mistaken use of a word form or pronunciation based on a false analogy with a correct or prestigious form​

 Now it’s your turn. In the comments section, tell us about your own grammar gripes. What do people say in your language that bothers you?
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:30| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

『TOEICレジスタードマーク L & R Testを使って、英語の4技能を効率的に伸ばす方法』


 上のタイトルの拙著に、すばらしいカスタマーレビューを2ついただきました。的を射た適切なレビューです。ぜひご覧ください。

 ここから進んでください。

 99円です。


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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:06| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制-2(進行形)

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 昨日に引き続き 「時制」 ですが、きょうは「進行形」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。昨日よりもずっと短くて、6分半です。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 
 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today, we are going to look at the progressive verb tenses. Progressive tenses express actions that are unfinished or in progress. There are three progressive verb tenses: the past progressive, the present progressive, and the future progressive. Progressive tenses are the same as continuous tenses.

 We will start with the present progressive, the most common progressive tense. You form the present progressive tense by using a form of the verb be followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I am watching a movie.

 It is easy to confuse the simple present and the present progressive. What’s the difference between, “It rains in Seattle” and “It is raining in Seattle”?

 “It rains in Seattle” states that it rains in general. It does not necessarily mean that it is raining at the moment of speaking. “It is raining in Seattle” means that the rain started in the past, is happening now, and will probably continue into the future.

 Now, at this time, and currently are common adverbs in the present progressive.

 The present progressive can also express a scheduled event in the future. For example, this sentence is in the present progressive: “She is starting school next semester.

 The meaning here is the same as the sentence in the simple future: “She is going to start school next semester.” The present progressive and simple future (with be going to) sometimes have the same.

 You can also use present progressive with always to say that something disturbs you. “My neighbor is always playing loud music at night” or “I am always making mistakes with verb tenses!


Past Progressive

 Let’s move on to the past progressive. The past progressive describes an event that was in progress in the past. To form the past progressive use was or were followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I was working late last night.

 Sentences in the past progressive often have two actions.

 For example, “It was snowing when the plane landed in Denver.
 Notice that the second action, landed, is in the simple past.

 The past progressive can also express an action in progress interrupted by a second action. “I was running when I slipped and fell” or “I was sleeping when you called.

 It is possible to have two progressive actions in the same sentence if the two actions are happening at the same time. You could say, “I was sleeping when you were working.”


Future Progressive

 The future progressive tense describes an event that will be in progress in the future. To form the future progressive tense, use will be followed by an -ing verb. For example, “I will be waiting for you when you finish work.

 The future progressive can be useful when you are making plans. Imagine your friend wants you to pick her up the airport tomorrow. But you have to work.

 You could tell her, “I’m sorry, but I will be working when your plane gets in.

 You can learn more about future tenses in this previous episode of Everyday Grammar.


Stative Verbs

 There are some verbs that cannot be used in any of the progressive tenses. You would say “I own a car,” not I am owning a car.” Own is a stative verb. Stative verbs describe unchanging conditions or situations. Stative verbs often refer to mental states such as know, realize, like, believe, understand, love, hate, appear, and exist.

 A few verbs have both stative and non-stative meanings. Let’s look at the verb think. “I think the book is good” is stative. The action does not change. “I am thinking about you” is progressive. It shows a temporary, changing action. Sensory verbs like see, taste, feel, smell, and hear work the in the same way.

 Progressive verbs are especially useful for describing changing emotional states. For that reason, they are very common in song lyrics. We will leave you with a few examples.

 I’m John Russell.

 And I’m Jill Robbins.

[John Lennon]
“I was dreaming of the past
And my heart was beating fast
I began to lose control…”

[Styx]
“I’m sailing away
Sail an open course for the virgin sea”

[Adele]
“I'll be waiting for you when
you're ready to love me again
I put my hands up
I'll do everything different
I'll be better to you”


 右に見える『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』では、こうした文法を簡潔に分かりやすく説明しています。


 この花は、オオイヌノフグリです。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:16| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月06日

英語で英文法を学ぶ ― 時制の基礎 (VOA Learning English)


 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、「時制の基礎講座」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。かなり長くて、9分ありますが、英語の時制の考え方が理解できるかと思います。

 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。文法用語は、辞書で調べて、日本語での用語と併せて覚えておきましょう。
 きょうは、12の時制についての文法用語が覚えられますよ。

 また、英語で英文法を学ぶと、意外と日本語で学習するよりも理解しやすいことが分かるのではないでしょうか。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。

 英文を追わなくても聴き取れるかもしれません。スマホなどを使って聞いてみましょう。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Today, we are going to give you a basic overview of the verb tense system in English.
 Verb tenses tell us how an action relates to the flow of time.
 There are three main verb tenses in English: present, past and future. The present, past and future tenses are divided into four aspects: the simple, progressive, perfect and perfect progressive.

 There are 12 major verb tenses that English learners should know.

 English has only two ways of forming a tense from the verb alone: the past and the present. For example, we drove and we drive.

 To form other verb tenses, you have to add a form of have, be or will in front of the verb. These are called helping, or auxiliary verbs.

Time, culture, and grammar

 Verb tenses can be difficult to learn in a foreign language. Different cultures think different ways about time. Chinese, for example, has no grammatical verb tenses. Other languages, like Indonesian, express time only through adverbs ― there are no changes to the verb form.

 English verb tenses give many details about time and action such as:
 Is the action finished?
 How long did the action happen?
 Was the action repeated?
 Did the action happen at a known or unknown time?
 Is the action a habit?
 Is the action planned or spontaneous?

 It is difficult to think about time distinctions that do not exist in your own language. So, it can take many years for English learners to master verb tenses.

 Let’s get started. We are going to give examples of all 12 verb tenses using the verb drive.

Simple Tenses

 We’ll start with the simple tenses. These are probably the first tenses you learned in English. Simple tenses usually refer to a single action. In general, simple tenses express facts and situations that existed in the past, exist in the present, or will exist in the future.

Simple present: I drive home every day.
Simple past: I drove home yesterday.
Simple future: I will drive home later.

Progressive (Continuous) Tenses

 Let’s go on to the progressive tenses. We use progressive tenses to talk about unfinished events. Progressive tenses are also called continuous tenses.

Past progressive: I was driving when you called.
Present progressive: I am driving now.
Future progressive: I will be driving when you call.

Perfect Tenses

 Now let’s look at the perfect tenses. Perfect tenses cause the most confusion. To put it simply, they express the idea that one event happens before another event.

 There are many tricky exceptions with the perfect tenses, which we will discuss in a future episode. The adverbs never, yet and already are common in perfect tenses.

Present perfect: I have driven that road.
Past perfect: I had already driven that road in the past.
Future perfect: I will have driven 200 miles by tomorrow.

Perfect Progressive Tenses

 Finally, let’s look at the perfect progressive tenses. Generally, perfect progressive tenses express duration, or how long? Perfect progressive tenses usually include the adverbs for or since.

Present perfect progressive: I have been driving since this morning.
Past perfect progressive: I had been driving for three hours before I stopped to get gas.
Future perfect progressive: I will have been driving for five hours by the time I arrive.

 Don’t worry if you don’t understand everything yet. Here are some recommendations we have for learning verb tenses.

  Adverbs are your friends

 First, think of adverbs as your friends. Adverbs of time offer valuable clues about the correct verb tense.

 Let’s use the adverb ago. Ago is only used in the simple past as in, “I left home three years ago.” The adverb ago is never used in the present perfect. Certain adverbs occur with certain verb tenses.

  Keep it simple

 English learners sometimes try to impress people by using complex verb tenses. You often have a choice of several verb tenses. When you do, always choose the simplest one. It will be clearer for your listener, and there is less chance of making a mistake.

  Practice with questions

 Native speakers don’t think consciously about verb tenses. With enough practice, English learners can internalize the verb tense system, too. Instead of worrying about deep time relationships, try using adverbs and your ear to choose the right verb tense.

 Often when someone asks a question, you can respond in the same verb tense. We’ll ask a question in each verb tense. Give an answer in the same tense, then listen to our answer.

Ready?

1. Did you get enough sleep last night? (simple past)
  Yes, I slept well.

2. Do you shower every day? (simple present)
  Yes, I shower every day.

3. Are you going to study tonight? (simple future)
  Yes, I’m going to study tonight.

4. What were you doing when I called you last night? (past progressive)
  I was eating dinner when you called me last night.

5. What are you doing right now? (present progressive)
  I am practicing verb tenses right now.

6. What will you be doing at midnight on New Year’s Eve? (future progressive)
  I will be celebrating the New Year with my friends.

7. Had you ever tried skiing before today? (past perfect)
  Yes, I had already done it several times before.

8. Have you ever broken the law? (present perfect)
  No, I have never broken the law.

9. Will you have gotten married by the time you turn 30? (future perfect)
  No, I will not have gotten married by the time I turn 30.

10. How long had you been smoking before you quit? (past perfect progressive)
   I had been smoking for two years before I quit.

11. How long have you been waiting for the bus? (present perfect progressive)
   I have been waiting for the bus for 20 minutes.

12. How long will you have been working before you retire? (future perfect progressive)
   I will have been working for 30 years before I retire.

This is just a basic introduction to verb tenses. In the following weeks, we will cover the more difficult verb tenses in more detail.

I’m Jill Robbins. And I’m John Russell.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:15| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年03月05日

今年の農作業始動


 きょうは啓蟄でした。虫たちが地上に這い上がって来る日。
 気温も4月上旬並みに上がって、絶好の農作業日和でした。

 まず、量販店にジャガイモの種芋と木灰、牡蠣がら石灰を買いに行きました。そして、雑草の生えた畑に牡蠣がら石灰を散布し、耕耘機をかけました。

 これがいわゆる before の状態です。

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 そして、耕耘機をかけたあと、つまり after の状況が、これです。

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 ソラマメにかけてあった寒冷紗を取り外したり、芽キャベツを収穫して処分したり、玉ねぎの草取りをしたりしているうちに夕方になり、ジャガイモの植え付けは来週に延期です。

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 これから1年、私をサポートしてくれる相棒です。

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 啓蟄らしく、畑から虫が這い出してきて、鳥たちはついばむのに大忙しでした。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 21:37| Comment(0) | 農事通信

2017年03月03日

英語で英文法を学ぶということ ― 動詞 get の使い方

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組を聞きましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、「動詞 get の使い方」 です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。かなり長くて、10分30秒ありますが、get の使い方がよく分かると思います。
 また、いろいろな文法用語を英語で覚えることもできます。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。

 英文を追わなくても聴き取れるかもしれません。スマホなどを使って聞いてみましょう。


 From VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 So, Alice, what did you do last night?

 Well, I was at home, getting ready to go to the movies. I was getting my shoes on when I got a feeling that something strange was going to happen.

 I've gotten those feelings, too.

 Then, I left the house, and got a cab, and got to the movies as fast as I could.

 Did you get there on time?

 Yes! But as soon as I got into the theater, I got a phone call from someone whose voice I didn’t recognize. That’s when things started to get weird…



 Did you notice anything unusual in this story? The verb get is used 10 times -- and with several different meanings.

 Get is one of the most commonly used, most tricky, and sometimes most hated words for English learners. When learning this verb, it is best to keep a sense of humor.

 That is because the verb has more than 50 uses, such as when it appears as part of at least 12 phrasal verbs or other expressions.

 Today on Everyday Grammar, we explore this simple three-letter word with many meanings. But don’t worry. By the time you come to the end of the program, we hope you will begin to enjoy this captivating and changeable verb.

 We will consider a few of the most common meanings of get and offer some ideas on how to use the verb.

 Let’s start with a very common meaning of get, which is to receive, obtain, or buy. The structure is:

get + direct object

 Listening or reading for clues and then recognizing the meaning from those clues is the best way of explaining this meaning.

For example, take the following sentence:

  I got an email from my friend Penelope.

 In this sentence, does ‘got’ mean received, obtained, or bought?

 Here, the word got means received. We know that the person did not buy the email. We also know that they did not obtain it, since obtain means to acquire by effort.

 Let’s try another sentence:

  I just got a new sofa!

 In this example, does got mean received, obtained, or bought? It probably means bought, since the speaker does not provide any evidence that it was received.

 But, in this statement, whether the speaker bought the sofa or obtained it in some other way is not very important. The most important thing to know here is that the speaker did not receive the sofa ― they obtained it in some way.

 Now, let’s turn to a different meaning of get. This one means to bring or fetch. The structure is:

get + direct object

 Listen to this example:

  I’m going outside to get the mail.

 Sometimes, however, the structure can be:

get + indirect object + direct object

 Listen to the example:

  Could you get me my phone? It’s in the bedroom upstairs.

 In this sentence, the direct object is my phone and the indirect object is me. This is a structure you can use to ask someone to bring something to you. You would probably not use it unless the thing were fairly close. For example, if you left your mobile phone at a friend’s house, and you will see the friend tomorrow, you would not say:

  Could you get me my phone tomorrow?

 Instead, you would say:
 
  Could you bring me my phone tomorrow?

 Now, you try it. Ask someone to bring something nearby to you.

 Our next meaning of get is to arrive somewhere. There are two structures here. The first is:

get + location adverb

The second is:

get + to + location

 Listen to a few examples:

  What time will you get here?
  I got to Tokyo at 6 a.m.
  I got to the concert late.

 In these examples, the clue to the meaning of get is the name of a place right after the verb, such as “Tokyo,” “the movies,” “here” or “there.”

 Our last meaning of get on today’s program is to become. The structure is:

get + adjective

 Listen to a few examples:

  The food is getting cold.
  I get nervous when I have to speak in public.


 In this use, the verb get simply replaces the verb become. You will recognize this easily when you hear or see an adjective immediately after get.

 Here are three suggestions to help you better understand and use the meanings of get:

Tip #1: Guess the meaning from clues

 Guessing can be your best friend when trying to understand and use the meanings of get. Use context clues to help you know how get is used. Context means words that are used with or next to a specific word or expression that helps explain its meaning.

 Look for a direct object or a location adverb or an adjective before or after the verb get. These will help you to know its intended meaning.

Tip #2: Practice, practice, practice

 Read and listen to as much as you can in English. The more you do this, the more easily you will be able to use clues as a tool to quickly understand meaning. Americans, the British, and other native English speakers can recognize these clues very quickly. You can learn to do this, too! Try to immerse yourself in English by listening to Learning English podcasts, watching movies and YouTube videos, and listening to music.

Tip #3: Use other verbs

 If you are not sure how to use some of the meanings of get, you can instead use verbs with similar meanings. Sometimes the other verbs sound natural, and other times they sound formal. For example, you can say, “I just bought a new sofa!” and it sounds perfectly natural. By comparison, saying, “I arrived home at 10 p.m.” sounds very official. Yet, both are correct and can be used.

Orin Hargraves is a lexicographer. He writes and studies dictionaries. Hargraves recently told Everyday Grammar that, “Many of the jobs that we currently give to get ... can also be expressed by other verbs.” Hargraves’ advice is good advice.

The Everyday Grammar team hopes you enjoyed learning a few of the many meanings of the verb get. So, get going and enjoy this wonderful verb. We've got to go now. But keep listening in the coming weeks for more words with many meanings.

I’m Phil Dierking.
I'm Jill Robbins.
And I'm Alice Bryant.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:27| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

「お嫁にいらした ねえさま」って、誰でしょう?

 今日は雛祭りの日ですね。雛祭りと言えば、「うれしいひな祭り」という歌です。

 「お花をあげましょ 桃の花」 とあるのに、まだまだ寒いですね。どこにも桃の花は咲いていません。この歌は旧暦で歌ったものですからね。

 旧暦で言うと、今年の雛祭りは3月30日。つぼみも大きく膨らんで、咲いている花もあるかもしれませんね。

 実は、この歌には、いくつかの間違いがあるのだそうです。

 2番に「お内裏様と お雛様」とありますが、二人揃って「内裏様」だそうです。だから、「お雛様」は余分だとなります。

 また、3番に「赤いお顔の右大臣」とありますが、白ひげで少し赤ら顔のおじいさんのほうは、内裏様のほうから見て左側なので、右大臣ではないそうです。

 さらに、雛壇の位置から見ても、この二人は大臣ではなく、随身(警護をする人)なんだとか。


 私がきょう書きたかったのは、これではなく、次のくだりです。

   お嫁にいらした ねえさまに
   よく似た官女の 白い顔


 ネットで検索すると、この「ねえさま」というのは、作詞家であるサトウハチローの姉が十八で嫁ぎ、すぐに結核で亡くなってしまったことを偲んで書かれたという説明がよく出てきます。

 つまり、「ねえさま」は、この歌の主人公であろう女の子(たぶん)の、よその家に嫁いでいった実の姉ということになりますね。

 でも、私はこの説明には同調しません

 詩や小説などの文学作品の裏に隠されたものが何だったのかを探ろうとするするのが、文学を研究することの神髄なのかもしれませんが、こうした詩に使われた文言の解釈は、その字面でのみ考えるべきではないでしょうか。

 「お嫁にいらした」という敬語は、身内にはまず使いません。古い時代の小説などを読んでいると、父母や兄姉に対して敬語を使っていたりしますが、第三者に身内のことを伝えるときには、この歌詞のような敬語は使いません。

 この「ねえさま」というのは、兄嫁以外にはないと考えます。

 この歌の主人公が10歳前後だと考えると、長兄が二十歳を超えていることは十分にあり得ます。そして、その長兄に十代後半の女性が嫁いで来たのでしょう。おそらく前年の秋に。

 新しい兄嫁をまぶしい気持ちで歌ったのが、

  お嫁にいらした ねえさまに
  よく似た官女の 白い顔

 
だと、私は思うのです。


 この本で、ひな祭りのことを英語で紹介しましょう。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 11:04| Comment(0) | 雑文

2017年03月02日

こんなステッカーは、もう捨てっかー!

 むか〜し昔、あるところにバンパーステッカーというのがありました。
 日本でも、暴走族だけでなく、みんな、よく車にバンパーステッカーを貼ったりしたものです。

 アメリカでは選挙の年になると、よく候補者のスローガンなどを書いたバンパーステッカーを貼ったりします。
 選挙のスローガンだけでなく、いわゆる「パンパーステッカー・ジョーク」も、以前はよく見かけたものでした。

 しかし、今では、土産品店をのぞいても、ほとんど見かけなくなってしまいました。

 「こんなステッカーは、もう捨てっかー」と言って、捨てられてしまったんですね。


 今日は、そうした捨てられてしまった、バンパー捨てッカー・ジョークを少し紹介しましょう。

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 「笑わないで。これでもお金を払って買ったんだから


 ちょっと古すぎてみっともない車に貼ってあるんでしょうね。 アメリカでは車検がないのか、ほとんど廃車寸前と思われるものまで走っています。


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 「ついてこないで。私も道に迷っちゃったの


 昔、車で田舎道を走っていて、ちょっと細い道に入ったら、

  You Are Lost

 と書いてある掲示を見たことがあります。Do Not TrespassPrivate RoadNot a Through Way などよりもしゃれていますよね。

 それでは。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:54| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年03月01日

Dreams do not work unless you do.



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 これは、ある高校に掲示してあったものです。「勉強しなければ夢は叶えられない」 という意味ですね。

 文尾の do は代動詞で、work を代用したものですね。高校に貼ってあるものですから、 「勉強する」 という意味が適するかと思いますが、職場であれば、当然 「働く」 という意味になるでしょうね。

 work は、ここでは 「うまく行く、功を奏する」という意味の自動詞です。

 work の意味をうまく使い分けています。

 「勉強する」は、私たちは通常 study で覚えているかと思いますが、「学校の勉強をする」というようなときは、work も一般的です。

 work を使った語に homework がありますね。

 先生が子供に与える「宿題」を homework だと理解している人も多いかと思いますが、homework classwork (学校での勉強)に対する語で、言わば、自主的に 「家でやる勉強」 のことを言うようです。

 ですから、必ずしも「先生が出す」というものではありません。先生が生徒に出す 「宿題」 には assignment を使うのがふつうです。

 家に持ち帰ってする(会社の)仕事も homework です。

 unless if 〜 not の意味ですね。ですから、unless you do の部分は、if you don’t work のように言い換えることができます。



 こうした掲示や看板の表現を、下の本では、写真を使って解説しています。今では無料ダウンロードキャンペーン中です。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:03| Comment(0) | 生活英語