2017年02月24日

アメリカ大統領選挙に使われるいろいろなイディオム表現

 Voice of America の Words and Their Stories という番組を聞いてみましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、「アメリカの大統領選挙に使われるいろいろなイディオム表現」という放送です。スポーツから来たイディオム、ボクシングから来たイディオム、競馬から来たイディオムなどです。日本語でも今ではよく使われる表現もあります。

 これは役に立ちそうな表現集ですよ。覚えておくべきイディオムを太字にしましたから、辞書で意味や使い方を調べましょう。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分57秒あります。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 And now the VOA Learning English program -- Words and Their Stories.


 On this show, we explore common expressions in American English.

 Today we talk about expressions related to the biggest contest in the United States ― the election of the American president.

 Well, except for the first election. That was not much of a contest. On February 4, 1789, all 69 members of Congress voted for George Washington.

 Supposedly, Washington didn’t even want to be President. John Adams was the runner-up. So, according to the rules at the time, Adams became Washington’s vice president.

 Elections these days are much harder to win. They can last for years and cost millions and millions of dollars. So it is not surprising that there are many expressions to describe the race for the White House. That expression, in fact, is one of them.

 We often call political elections races, a word you probably know from sports. Many expressions we use for political campaigns are borrowed from sports competitions. In fact, sometimes we just cut to the chase and call the presidential election, a horse race.

 If the race is close, we can say the candidates are neck-and-neck. This horse racing term means the two candidates are nearly tied in the polls and a winner is difficult to predict. We call such a race - political or otherwise - a dead heat.

 In the early part of an election cycle when a party is picking its nominee, usually many candidates are in the running. Sometimes a candidate pulls away from the pack and becomes the clear favorite.

 These two terms also come from horse racing. So does down to the wire.

 In a horse race, the horses race to the finish and run through a wire as they cross the finish line. A presidential race that is down to the wire is very close. The only way to know the winner is to wait for all the votes to be counted.
 If a candidate wins the election by a large margin -- that is to say won by many, many votes -- he or she has won hands down. We also say the race was a landslide. Or you could say the race was simply no contest.

 These expressions all mean a candidate won easily.

 But if a candidate loses an election by a big margin, we could say that campaign got blown out of the water, as if by a submarine torpedo. Or we might say simply that the candidate got crushed at the polls. More informally, we might also say the candidate got beat like a rug, which is visually entertaining.

 Some candidates lose an election because they are unwilling to toe the party line. In other words, they refuse to go along with the rules and standards of their own political party. This may upset the candidate’s base -- the people who usually support that party.

 The opposite of toeing the party line is reaching across the aisle. In the U.S., the two major parties are the Democrats and the Republicans. In this expression, the “aisle” refers to the actual physical walkway that divides the legislative halls. Members of the two parties sit on opposite sides.

 So “to reach across the aisle” means to make an effort to negotiate with members who are not in your party. Many politicians win elections because of their willingness to work with members of the opposing party. On the other hand, some politicians lose for the same reason.

 Voters can, sometimes, be very difficult to predict.

 And that brings us to the end of another Words and Their Stories.

 I’m Anna Matteo.


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 写真はクリックすると拡大します。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 14:09| Comment(0) | 生活英語

different than 〜 は間違い? それとも許容? 


 「〜と異なる、違う」には、different from 〜 different than 〜という表現があります。

 そして、「different from のかわりに different than も使われるようになった」という声があったり、「different than は間違いで、正しい用法は different from だ」という意見を聞いたりします。

 しかし、実は、この2つはいずれも正しい用法です。

 もともと文法的な違いがあったのですが、両方を混同して使うネイティブ・スピーカーが多いというわけですね。

 ネイティブ・スピーカーの言うことは常に正しいとは限らないということです。

 次の2 つの文を比べてみてください。

・Their model is different from ours in its power requirements.
 「彼らの機種は所要電力の点で私どものとは違っている」

・The ad looks much different than I thought it would.
 「その広告は、私の思っていたのよりずっと違って見える」

 from than のあとに注目してください。

 from は前置詞ですから、あとには名詞や名詞句が続きます。最初の文の ours 以降は語句です。ですから from が使われるわけですね。

 いっぽう、than は前置詞でもありますが、接続詞の働きもあり、あとに「」を続けることができます。I thought it would は「節」ですから、2つめの文では than が使われているというわけです。

 1 つめの文を different than で言い換えることはできません。アメリカ人の中には使う人も多くいるようですが。それは間違いです。

 文法のことをよく知らないんですね。

 そして、2 つめの文は different from を使って言い換えることができますが、その場合は、
・The ad looks much different from what I thought it would.

のように、関係代名詞の what を使って from のあとを「名詞節」にする必要があります。前置詞である from のあとには、名詞(句)しか続かないからです。



 ところで、下の写真がどういう意味なのかご存じですか。
 shoefiti や shoe tossing で検索してみてください。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:45| Comment(0) | 電子ブック