2017年02月14日

なごり雪

You are waiting for a train
Standing next to you
I am worrying about the time
Unseasonal snow is falling

This will be the last time
I see snow falling in Tokyo
So you said sadly

Now I see the season has come
It's the time when late spring snow falls
After we've had too much fun

Now it's spring
And you have become pretty
Much prettier than last year



 融け残った雪は 「なごり雪」 ではありません。
 融け残った雪は 「友待つ雪」 といいます。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 23:25| Comment(0) | 雑文

英語の文法用語を英語で覚えるということ

 下に、Voice of America から Everyday Grammar という番組を2つ紹介しました。

 文法について説明している番組ですから、英語の文法用語が出てきます。例えば 「過去形」 は past tense のように。

 大学で英語の授業をネイティブ・スピーカーの先生が行うことが増えてきていますし、文科省の学習指導要領でも 「高校での英語の授業は英語で行うことを基本とする」 のようにうたっています。
 ですから、文法用語を英語で知っておくことが、これからどんどん必要になってくることでしょう。

 下の拙著では、文法を英語で説明していますから、読み進めていくことによって、文法用語を英語で無理なく覚えていくことができます。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

 ここからどうぞ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 13:29| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

ていねいな質問を表す単純過去形

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。

 きょうは、過去形でていねいな意味を表す表現を話しています。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分12秒あります。



 Imagine you are at a cafe in the United States. The server walks toward you and asks the following question:

Did you want cream for your coffee?

You might ask yourself how you should answer.
  What is the server talking about?
  Why did the server use a past tense construction, "Did you want?"
  Why did the server not say "Do you want cream for your coffee?"


 In today's Everyday Grammar, we will try to solve a mystery: why do some Americans use the past tense when they are talking about the present?


Simple Past Tense

 The simple past tense is used for actions or situations that happened in the past. These actions or situations are finished.
 For example, you might hear a person say, "Did you have a good weekend?"

 When they ask this question, they are using the past tense construction, "Did you have ...," and they are clearly discussing a recent weekend that is now finished.

 They might ask such a question when they see you on Monday or Tuesday when you are back at work or school, for example.

 The traditional use of the simple past tense is this: to note complete actions or situations in the past. This definition is true most of the time in English conversation.


Simple Past Tense with "want" and "need"

 However, there are exceptions.
 For example, in conversation, Americans often use the simple past tense of the verbs want or need even though they are asking a question about the present.
 Let’s go back to the American cafe. You might hear a conversation such as this:

Server: Did you want cream for your coffee?
Customer: No thanks!
Server: Did you need more water?
Customer: Yes, please!

 In the conversation, the server uses the simple past tense when asking questions.
 It would be grammatically correct to say "Do you want cream for your coffee” or "Do you need more water?"

 So, why did the server use the simple past tense instead of the present tense?


Culture and Grammar

 Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber are grammar experts. They say that different cultures have different rules about politeness. In American culture, it is often considered polite to speak indirectly.

 One way some Americans speak indirectly, Conrad and Biber say, is by using a past tense verb when asking about a present desire. Americans do this by using the construction and .

 Even close friends may use this polite form with each other. When they are asking about what another person wants to do, some Americans say, "Did you want to go to the concert?" instead of "Do you want to go to the concert?"

 However, speakers do not answer such questions in the simple past tense. The answer usually comes in the verb forms that you would expect -- a simple present, present progressive or future tense verb, for example.

 Consider one of our example sentences: "Did you want to go to the concert?"

 The response to this question could be in the simple present tense: "No, I don't want to."
 Or the response could be in the present progressive: "No, I'm watching a movie."
 Or the answer could be in the future tense: "Yes, I'll go to the concert."

 You can read more about these verb forms in previous Everyday Grammar stories.

Past tense with other verbs

 We started this program with a question: why do some Americans use the past tense when talking about the present?
 We have discovered that Americans generally only do this when asking about a present desire or preference ? and usually only with the verbs want and need.
 In general, Americans do not use the simple past in this way when they are asking for information or using other verbs, such as like, love, prefer, and so on.

 This lesson is not designed to give you yet another grammar rule to remember. The point is to show you that native speakers will use language in ways that do not always follow the grammatical definitions that you may have learned about.

 Today's lesson will be useful if you are ever listening or speaking to an American. You might be able to ask polite questions, or understand what Americans mean when they ask you a question.

 Remember: we have talked about a grammatical structure that you might hear or use in conversation. It does not follow the traditional rules of grammar, so we do not advise that you use it on your next English grammar test!

I'm Alice Bryant.

And I'm John Russell.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:07| Comment(0) | 生活英語