2017年02月17日

shop と store の違い

 shop も 「店」 ですし、store も 「店」 です。どう違うのでしょうか。

 アメリカのサイトなどで、ネイティブ・スピーカーが 「小さいのが shop で大きいのが store だ」 と答えていたりしますが、変な回答です。英語の母語話者でも知らないことは多いものだという典型でしょうね。

 よく 「ネイティブはこう言う」 と言って、英語母語者の言うことを金科玉条のごとく信じる人も多いようですが、いつもマユに唾を引いて考えたほうがよいと思います。

 では、shop store の違いを考えてみましょう。

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 このカードでは、pet store という表現が出ていますね。日本語では、私たちはふつう 「ペットショップ」 と言いますから、「ペットストア」 にはちょっと違和感を感じますね。

 coffee shop coffee store はどう違うと思いますか。coffee shop はコーヒーを淹れて出してくれる店ですね。
 coffee store は? こちらはコーヒー豆を売っている店です。コーヒーは飲めません。サンプルで飲ませてくれるところもあるかもしれませんが。

 では、book storebook shop の違いは?
 「book shop なんてないよ」と言われるかもしれません。イギリスにはあります。

 コーヒー店の例で考えると、book store は本を売っている店で、book shop は本を作っている店のように思えますが、これは、昔、悪くなった本を繕い直してくれていた店の名残りの呼び方です。製本をやり直してくれる店です。

 もうお分かりですね。shop は何らかの作業を提供してくれる店で、store は品物を置いて売っている店のことです。

 workshop という語があります。研修の中でも、ワークショップは、何らかの作業などをして、技術などを習得する研修ですね。ただ講師の話を聞くだけの研修はワークショップと言いません。

つまり、shop store は、店の規模の違いではないということですね。


 下の本には、こうしたまぎらわしい意味や用法の単語を、例文を付けて比較説明しています。
 ここからお求めください。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:55| Comment(0) | 生活英語

スマホと私のどっちが大事なの?

 Voice of America American Mosaic (アメリカの種々相)という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 バレンタインデーも過ぎてしまいましたが、きょうは、「スマホと私のどっちが大事なの?」と、私が勝手に題した話題です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分34秒あります。



 Forget the chocolates, flowers and jewelry.

 This Valentine’s Day, February 14, perhaps the best gift you can give the love of your life is your undivided attention. Sadly, for many of us, that is easier said than done.

 An international study of more than 13,000 adults found that many people say modern technology has affected relations with their partner. Almost 40 percent of those questioned said their partner paid more attention to their mobile device than to them.

 Intel Security Group, a private company, paid for the study. It examined how romantic relationships are affected by a person's use of social media and the Internet.

 The research included both old and new relationships. Thirty-three percent of those asked reported that they had to compete against a mobile device for attention on a first date.

 Apparently, we have as much love for our digital devices as for the people we love. Intel’s survey found that adults spend almost equal amounts of time online at home as they do interacting directly.

 And a lot of married couples, friends and family members argue about time spent on mobile devices.

 Gary Davis is the chief consumer security officer at Intel Security. He says recognition of our electronic device involvement is important.

 “If you have a pattern where you’re at dinner, you’re out on a date, you're home having a quiet evening, maybe watching a show, or just enjoying a fire ... and a device comes into play, it’s that awkward thing that I don’t think enough people think about. And when they don’t think about it, they don’t understand the wear and tear it’s causing on the relationship.”

 Edward Spector holds a similar opinion.

 “We’re not thoughtfully progressing in terms of how we’re using technology.”

 Spector works as a psychologist in Bethesda, Maryland. He studies human behavior, and specializes in technology dependence.

 "So, we have to be thoughtful about the consequences of connecting to a particular social network, or allowing yourself to have the habit of the last hour and a half of your evening be checking your Facebook, or always responding to a text immediately."

 Rules or time limits on a device might be good, in theory. However, Intel’s survey found that 45 percent of those questioned do not set rules. Another 45 percent said they got into arguments about how much they are on their phones when spending time with loved ones.

 The lack of social rules about digital behavior might be the result of the newness of the issue.

 Past generations did not have the technologies, said psychologist Spector.

 “In this situation, our elders know nothing. In fact, the knowledge and competence is moving towards the youngest generation that’s using the technology because they’re the ones bounding forward fearlessly, and finding out what ways you can get in trouble.”

 That trouble may include the sharing of sensitive information. Intel’s research found nearly 30 percent of couples share passwords to social media sites. This could be a problem when relationships end.

 Intel’s Gary Davis advises that people step away from electronic devices to truly connect with other people.

 “Understand the value of distancing yourself from your device and allow yourself to be engaged with that person that means the most to you,” said Davis.

I'm Caty Weaver.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:45| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月16日

乗り物に使う on と in の区別

 乗り物に「〜に乗って」と言うとき、in を使うのか on なのか迷う人も多いのではないでしょうか。on the bus、on the train、on the plane、on the ship などは on なのに、なぜ乗用車だけ in the car なのでしょうか。

 英語のサイトにネイティブ・スピーカーが文法問題に回答するものがあり、「屋根のない乗り物には on を使う」だとか「中で移動できるくらい広い乗り物には in を使う」など珍説もあったりしますが、どれも的を射ていません。

 簡単に覚えられ、忘れない考え方があります。

 上に述べたバス、電車、列車、飛行機、船は、どれもが商業的に毎回同じルートを移動していることがポイントです。つまり、「決まったの上」を運行しているのです。on the line という考え方です。

 今では無線がほとんどですが、電話もインターネットも、出だしは線がつながっていました。ですから、on the phone であり、on the Internet と言います。

 屋根のあるのは in で、ないのが on のように区別するという人もいますが、今では、ほとんどの乗り物に屋根がありますから、on を使う理由が説明できませんね。

 こうした商用の乗り物に対して、自家用車はどこでも自由に走り、決まった路線がありません。ですから、on ではなく in を使います。in the car、in my car のように言います。
 タクシーは商業用ですが、同じルートを走るわけではありませんので、in a taxi のように in を使います。

 on the plane だからすべての飛行機は on なのかと思ってしまいますが、in a small plane という表現があります。これは small がミソです。自家用機なのですね。つまり、商業用のコマーシャルルートのように毎回同じ「線」を飛ぶわけではありませんから、on は使わず in になるわけです。

 このように路線が決まった乗り物には on を使い、どこでも自由に行ける乗り物には in が基本です。

 だからと言って、「on ではない乗り物は in だ」のように結論づけることもできません。バイクや自転車や馬は、商用ルートがあるわけではありませんが、on を使います。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:36| Comment(0) | 生活英語

アンドリュー・ジャクソンに例えられるトランプ

 Voice of America の The Making of a Nation (国の成り立ち)という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、トランプ大統領と第7代大統領のアンドリュー・ジャクソンを比較している話です。
 日本語では、議員や首相などに使う 「」 と 「」 は区別していますが、英語では「大統領」も「大統領」も、同じく former president です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分14秒あります。




 Donald Trump has done a lot in his first week as president of the United States.
 Trump canceled several of former President Barack Obama’s executive orders. He signed some of his own executive orders. He also met with members of the U.S. intelligence community.

 In between, the new president chose artwork to hang in his office at the White House. One is a painting of former President Andrew Jackson.

 Some Americans say his choice of the painting is not a surprise. Many have been comparing President Trump with the former president.

 Jackson became America’s seventh president in 1828. Historians consider the 1828 election one of the more negative presidential campaigns. Many people say the 2016 election campaign was also extremely negative.

 That is just the beginning of the comparisons between Trump and Jackson, observers say. Both men campaigned as populists – candidates who say they represent ordinary people. Both are also known as political outsiders and conservatives. And, both are known for having strong personalities.

 Jackson, like Trump, was fiercely independent. He said that he alone would define his administration’s policies.

 Trump spoke about conditions in the United States, and around the world, at the Republican Party’s national convention last summer.

 “I alone can fix it,” he said. Trump was talking of, in his words, “poverty and violence at home,” and “war and destruction abroad.”

 Observers have also noted similar parts of his inaugural speech to the speech given by former President Jackson.

 Andrew Jackson served two terms in office. He was a member of the Democratic Party -- the conservative party at that time in American history.

 Donald Trump once considered himself a Democrat. He was also, at one time, an independent. He is now a Republican -- the major conservative party in America today.

 But there are some clear differences between the two presidents, says writer Richard Dean Young. He has argued that Trump is not exactly a modern-day Jackson.

 “Historical comparisons are tricky,” Young told VOA.

 One difference is that Jackson served in the U.S. military, Young said. He fought in battles against Native Americans and, later, against British forces.

 Trump, on the other hand, is a billionaire businessman from New York City. In Young’s words, Trump is “a city boy with absolutely no experience in military matters.”

 "Jackson was ‘one of the people,’ definitely not a city boy,” Young said.

 Margaret O’Mara is a professor of history at the University of Washington in Seattle. She said Trump’s populist-conservative message does resemble that of Andrew Jackson’s.

 O’Mara said, “Trump is extraordinary.” And the country, she said, has never elected a populist quite like him before.

 O’Mara said it is still too early to predict Trump’s place in history.

 "It is too soon to make judgments about his place in presidential history. That will depend on what he does, how he does it," O’Mara said.

 I'm Caty Weaver.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:40| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月15日

神田川

You may have already forgotten ...
Tying a red towel around the neck
You and I went to the bathhouse on the back street

We promised to come out together
Well, you always kept me waiting

My washed hair froze to the core
I was shivering and my soapbox rattled

You held me tight and said
Sorry, you became cold

Back then being young
I was not afraid of anything
The only thing I was afraid of losing
Was your warmth



 「神田川」 の1番の最後は 「あなたのやさしさが怖かった」 ですが、「やさしさを失うのが怖い」 と考えるほうがいいだろうと考えて、afraid of losing を補ってみました。

 また、「やさしさ」 は kindness をすぐに思い浮かべますが、風呂上がりで冷めた身体を抱いてくれた 「彼の温かさ」 と 「やさしさ」 を結びつけて、warmth としてみました。

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posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:50| Comment(0) | 雑文

弘法も筆のあやまり ―― ネイティブ・スピーカーも文法を間違える


 下の写真は、アメリカのスーパーマーケットのレジにある掲示です。

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 アメリカ人たちは、スーパーで毎日ショッピングをすることは、ほとんどありません。家の冷蔵庫も巨大ですから、週末にまとめて大量に買い込みます。
 ですから、レジでは一人一人の精算に時間がかかるのです。

 数品しか買わない人にとっては、長い列に待たされるとイライラします。

 そこで、こんな掲示を設置して、そうした人たちにすばやく対応しようというわけです。


 しかし、この less は文法的に間違っています。10 items のように数えられる名詞が使われていますから、並べて比較するのであれば、less ではなく fewer にすべきです。

 下の写真の本では、こうした看板や交通標識の写真を約60枚使い、その表現や文法などを詳しく解説しています。

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 そして、わずか300円です。スマホでも見られますよ。

 ここから進んでください。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:07| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

stump という単語を使ったイディオムとその歴史

 Voice of America の Words and Their Stories という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。

 きょうは、stump という単語がどういうイディオムで、また大統領のスピーチの中で使われているかを話しています。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。6分11秒あります。



 And now the VOA Learning English program, Words and Their Stories.

 Every word has its own story. What does it mean? Where did it come from? And how did it get into our language?

 There are many stories of early settlers of America: the people who moved westward and opened up new territory. Many of these settlers were farmers who wanted a new home, a piece of land, some crops and cattle.

 So, they moved west, cutting their way through difficult terrain, searching for a good place to live and farm. When they found it, they took out their axes and cut down trees. This was hard work. One of the hardest tasks was pulling up tree stumps from the ground.

 And that’s our word today -- “stump.”

 A tree stump is the part of a tree that remains in the ground after the tree is cut down. Stumps can also be the part of something such as a pencil that remains after the rest has been worn away.

 Tree stumps gave these early American farmers big problems. Some stumps were so big that farmers had to use two or three horses to pull them out.

 Stumps became part of life and part of the language. If someone asked a settler if they had cleared the land, they might answer: “Nope. I’m still stumped.” This means they did not know how to get rid of the tree stumps from the ground.

 And today, this meaning of the word is the same. To be stumped is to not know what to do or say. You are confused. You are blocked.

 During the early days of America, the trees fell fast. The stumps remained for years. Sometimes they became part of the landscape. Some writers even wrote stories about tree stumps.

 One day in 1716, a visitor named Ann Maury left the east coast to visit a so-called “stump town” in the west.

 “I went into the middle of the town,” she wrote. “And there, right in the center, surrounded by wooden buildings, was the great stump of a tree. I asked why this stump had not been pulled up. ‘Oh, we just never thought of it,’ was the answer. ‘Besides,’ the townspeople explained, ‘whenever one of the two chiefs has something to say, he stands upon this stump and is raised higher than the others. In this way, he can be heard better.’”

 When George Washington became commander of all the colonial troops in 1775, he supposedly used stumps to talk to his troops.

 In time, anyone who stood on a stump and spoke to the people became a “stump speaker.” As we know, politicians like to speak to crowds. So, it wasn’t long before “stump” entered politics.

 Presidential candidates travel all over the country to explain their positions on issues to voters and try to win their support.

 Jon Favreau was a speechwriter for President Barack Obama. He explained in an ABC news video that a stump speech is a candidate’s “argument” for why he or she should be elected.

 The speechwriter says that stump speeches contain everything a voter needs to know about where a candidate stands on issues important to that campaign.

 He says that stump speeches are useful “campaign tools that they (politicians) can use on the road.” They can simply reuse the same speech over and over or change it a little to fit each audience.

 We also use “stump” as a verb. The Online Etymology Dictionary defines “stump” as to "go on a speaking tour during a political campaign." The site says that usage began in 1838.

 These days, politicians are “stumping” when they go into their same old speech that they have given over and over and over again. So, it is no surprise that “stumping” used this way is often not a good thing.

 And that is the end of Words and Their Stories. If this story has left you feeling stumped, write us a comment. We will help you figure it out!

 I’m Anna Matteo.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:09| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月14日

なごり雪

You are waiting for a train
Standing next to you
I am worrying about the time
Unseasonal snow is falling

This will be the last time
I see snow falling in Tokyo
So you said sadly

Now I see the season has come
It's the time when late spring snow falls
After we've had too much fun

Now it's spring
And you have become pretty
Much prettier than last year



 融け残った雪は 「なごり雪」 ではありません。
 融け残った雪は 「友待つ雪」 といいます。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 23:25| Comment(0) | 雑文

英語の文法用語を英語で覚えるということ

 下に、Voice of America から Everyday Grammar という番組を2つ紹介しました。

 文法について説明している番組ですから、英語の文法用語が出てきます。例えば 「過去形」 は past tense のように。

 大学で英語の授業をネイティブ・スピーカーの先生が行うことが増えてきていますし、文科省の学習指導要領でも 「高校での英語の授業は英語で行うことを基本とする」 のようにうたっています。
 ですから、文法用語を英語で知っておくことが、これからどんどん必要になってくることでしょう。

 下の拙著では、文法を英語で説明していますから、読み進めていくことによって、文法用語を英語で無理なく覚えていくことができます。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

 ここからどうぞ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 13:29| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

ていねいな質問を表す単純過去形

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。

 きょうは、過去形でていねいな意味を表す表現を話しています。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分12秒あります。



 Imagine you are at a cafe in the United States. The server walks toward you and asks the following question:

Did you want cream for your coffee?

You might ask yourself how you should answer.
  What is the server talking about?
  Why did the server use a past tense construction, "Did you want?"
  Why did the server not say "Do you want cream for your coffee?"


 In today's Everyday Grammar, we will try to solve a mystery: why do some Americans use the past tense when they are talking about the present?


Simple Past Tense

 The simple past tense is used for actions or situations that happened in the past. These actions or situations are finished.
 For example, you might hear a person say, "Did you have a good weekend?"

 When they ask this question, they are using the past tense construction, "Did you have ...," and they are clearly discussing a recent weekend that is now finished.

 They might ask such a question when they see you on Monday or Tuesday when you are back at work or school, for example.

 The traditional use of the simple past tense is this: to note complete actions or situations in the past. This definition is true most of the time in English conversation.


Simple Past Tense with "want" and "need"

 However, there are exceptions.
 For example, in conversation, Americans often use the simple past tense of the verbs want or need even though they are asking a question about the present.
 Let’s go back to the American cafe. You might hear a conversation such as this:

Server: Did you want cream for your coffee?
Customer: No thanks!
Server: Did you need more water?
Customer: Yes, please!

 In the conversation, the server uses the simple past tense when asking questions.
 It would be grammatically correct to say "Do you want cream for your coffee” or "Do you need more water?"

 So, why did the server use the simple past tense instead of the present tense?


Culture and Grammar

 Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber are grammar experts. They say that different cultures have different rules about politeness. In American culture, it is often considered polite to speak indirectly.

 One way some Americans speak indirectly, Conrad and Biber say, is by using a past tense verb when asking about a present desire. Americans do this by using the construction and .

 Even close friends may use this polite form with each other. When they are asking about what another person wants to do, some Americans say, "Did you want to go to the concert?" instead of "Do you want to go to the concert?"

 However, speakers do not answer such questions in the simple past tense. The answer usually comes in the verb forms that you would expect -- a simple present, present progressive or future tense verb, for example.

 Consider one of our example sentences: "Did you want to go to the concert?"

 The response to this question could be in the simple present tense: "No, I don't want to."
 Or the response could be in the present progressive: "No, I'm watching a movie."
 Or the answer could be in the future tense: "Yes, I'll go to the concert."

 You can read more about these verb forms in previous Everyday Grammar stories.

Past tense with other verbs

 We started this program with a question: why do some Americans use the past tense when talking about the present?
 We have discovered that Americans generally only do this when asking about a present desire or preference ? and usually only with the verbs want and need.
 In general, Americans do not use the simple past in this way when they are asking for information or using other verbs, such as like, love, prefer, and so on.

 This lesson is not designed to give you yet another grammar rule to remember. The point is to show you that native speakers will use language in ways that do not always follow the grammatical definitions that you may have learned about.

 Today's lesson will be useful if you are ever listening or speaking to an American. You might be able to ask polite questions, or understand what Americans mean when they ask you a question.

 Remember: we have talked about a grammatical structure that you might hear or use in conversation. It does not follow the traditional rules of grammar, so we do not advise that you use it on your next English grammar test!

I'm Alice Bryant.

And I'm John Russell.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:07| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

2017年02月13日

文法:everyday と every day の使い分け

 Voice of America の Everyday Grammar という番組です。
 やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。ネイティブ・スピーカーでも間違える文法や表記のことを話しています。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分30秒あります。




From VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

This week, we will learn a few English words and phrases that are commonly misused in English.

Even well-educated native English speakers make the mistakes you will read and hear about today, including reporters and English teachers!

After today’s program, you can have fun finding these mistakes when other people use them.

Let’s start with a very common written mistake that native English speakers make.

"could of" or could’ve

If you spend time on social media, such as Facebook, you may see that native English speakers often use the word of after the words could, would or should. For example, in the sentence:

I could of gone to New York last weekend.

However, the word of is a preposition. The sentence needs a verb instead. The confusion is caused by the shortened, or abbreviated, version of “could have.” It takes an apostrophe followed by the letters ve. The spelling then is could've.

The preposition of sounds just like the shortened version of the verb have, which is pronounced ’ve.

In speaking, this is not a problem, since both phrases sound the same.

In writing, an easy way to remember the correct form is that could, would and should are helping verbs. So another verb must always follow them.

In the example, “I could’ve gone to New York last weekend,” have and gone are forms of verbs. Of is a preposition and would never appear after a helping verb.

Every day or Everyday

Another writing error happens every day in America. Native English speakers often misspell “every day” They will write it as one word instead of two.

When every and day are put together as one word, they become an adjective that means “common” or “used or seen each day.” When you use this adjective, you must usually put it before a noun. For example, you can say:

He didn’t let the problems of everyday life worry him.

But, if you wanted to tell someone that something happens each day, you must separate the words every and day in writing. For example, you could write:?

I practice my grammar every day.

When every and day are separate words, they are an adverb phrase that describes when, or how often, something happens.

So, how can you easily remember which one to use? Think of the title Everyday Grammar. Remember, if you are writing the single word everyday, it is an adjective that most often comes before a noun. But the two words every and day express how often something happens. And they are an adverb phrase, and must modify a verb.

The other mistakes we are looking at today can happen in either speech or writing.

Different than or different from

Many native English speakers use the phrase different than to show contrast between things or people. For example:

Children are different than adults.

Technically, that is incorrect. Standard English usage requires from instead of than, in this case. The correct sentence would be:

Children are different from adults.

But grammar experts do not always agree. Some of them say the phrase different than is acceptable. It has existed for centuries, they argue, and famous writers have used it in their works. For instance, 19th century writer F. Scott Fitzgerald used different than in his short story “The Rich Boy.” Listen:

Let me tell you about the very rich. They are different than you and me.

Some grammar experts say that both than and from are acceptable. However, no one objects to from, so it would be your safest choice, especially in academic writing.

“15 items or less”

The less grammar you understand, the more mistakes you probably will make. And the fewer grammar mistakes you make, the better.

Which brings us to another common grammar mistake: the use and misuse of fewer and less. Fewer is used with countable nouns; Less, with non-countable.

This mistake is found at food stores throughout the U.S. where signs at checkout lines sometimes read “15 items or less.” These lines are for people who are not buying very much.

But the phrase uses the adjective less to describe items, a countable noun. So less is wrong; the correct adjective is fewer.

The word fewer must be used with count nouns, like items, animals, cars, or dresses. Less is used with non-count nouns, such as money, sand, love, or water. (See our Everyday Grammar episode on Understanding Non-count Nouns)

So how can you remember whether to use less or fewer? One easy way to remember is to ask yourself, "Can I count this thing on a few fingers?" If the answer is "yes," use the word fewer.

We will be back next week with another Everyday Grammar. And remember: if you understand how to use the words discussed today, you are different from many English speakers!

I’m John Russell. And I’m Jill Robbins.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 11:25| Comment(0) | 英語で英文法

百姓再開

 昨日は、朝は冷え込みましたが、お昼近くになると気温も上がってきたため、収穫のために畑に行きました。

 畑に行ってしまうと、やっぱり収穫だけでは終わりません。

 不織布をかけておいたエンドウ類がこんもりと盛り上がっていたため、外して見ると、こんな感じで雑草が大きく育っています。(ほんとうは雑草と言ってはいけないそうですが)
写真はクリックすると拡大します。


IMG_0552.jpg

 草を取ると、エンドウが出てきました。
 もうすぐ、ネットを張ってやらなければなりません。百姓はいそがしい。

IMG_0553.jpg


 
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:44| Comment(0) | 農事通信

2017年02月12日

朝の徘徊

 八王子の我が家から歩いてすぐの所にある公園から見た富士山と丹沢山系です。
 きょうはいい天気だろうと分かっていたので、朝早く起きて朝日に照らされた富士山を撮りたかったのですが、やっぱり寝坊してしまいました。
 これは9時頃の景色です。写真はクリックすると拡大します。

DSC01610.jpg


 天気のよい週末、私はよくこの公園を散策します。家から歩いて数分です。

 畑も隣接していて、こんな感じの小径も残っています。舗装されていない土の小道っていいですね。

DSC01611.jpg


 冬枯れの里山です。

DSC01613.jpg

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 公園の中には水車もあります。これは昨年の秋に作り換えた新しいものです。

DSC01619.jpg

 東屋の屋根に生えたが朝日に輝いていました。

DSC01615.jpg

 もう何度も行きましたが、いつも癒される里山公園です。


posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:39| Comment(0) | 雑文

2017年02月11日

春は確実に近づいていますね。

 3年前の大雪で、屋根に積もった雪が車に落ちて、車の屋根が大きくへこんだため、新車に買い換えました。その車の最初の車検がやってきたため、きょう、ディーラーに持っていきました。
 車を預けたあと、電車でオフィスに向かいました。

 京王相模線に乗っていて、京王多摩川という駅の近くにフローラルガーデンがあるのを思い出し、下りて入ってみることにしました。
 そのときの写真です。写真はクリックすると拡大しますよ。

 これはロウバイですね。木によっては、満開を過ぎたものもあります。

DSC01599.jpg


 下の2つはモクレンです。つぼみもだいぶ膨らんできたようです。

DSC01605.jpg

DSC01606.jpg


 これはクリスマスローズだと思うのですが、セツブンソウにも似ているような。
 自信がありません。

DSC01604.jpg

 今日は寒くて、あまりのんびりと見ていられませんでした。暖かくなって花が何種類も咲いたら、また行ってみましょう。



 月曜日の夕方まで、この本この本は、無料ダウンロードキャンペーン中ですよ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 17:17| Comment(0) | 雑文

2017年02月10日

「本命チョコ」、「義理チョコ」

 バレンタインデーも、もうすぐですね。ところで「義理チョコ」って、英語ではどう言えばいいのでしょう? 「本命チョコ」は?

 そのときは、この本があります。ここからどうぞ。

GyoujiAnnai.jpg


 でも、ちょっとお抹茶

 この本は、今日(2017年2月10日)の午後5時から無料ダウンロードキャンペーンをします。午後5時を待ってダウンロードしましょう。

 Kindle 本は、キンドル・リーダーを買わなくても読めます。スマホやパソコンでも、アプリをダウンロード(無料です)すれば、読むことができるんです。

 お試しあれ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:00| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

2017年02月09日

『TOEICレジスタードマーク L & R Testに出る! まぎらわしい単語・熟語』

 拙著の Kindle 版 『TOEICレジスタードマーク L & R Testに出る! まぎらわしい英単語・熟語』 の本の内容を、少し詳しく説明しましょう。

5137TI8YRHL.jpg

 Amazon のここからどうぞ。

 この本は、TOEICレジスタードマーク L & R Test に使われやすい、意味や使われ方のまぎらわしい単語を取り上げ、それぞれの違いを説明し、例文を載せています。
 例文は、すべてアメリカ人のプロのナレーターの声で録音され、株式会社ナラボー・プレスのサイトから、無料でダウンロードすることができます。

 1つの例を出しましょう。日本語では「仕事、任務」となる単語です。次の3つの単語を比べています。

job / task / assignment

 jobは、日常的な広い意味の「仕事」を表す語で、通常は収入を伴う意味合いが強い。
 taskは、人に課せられた、成すべき仕事を意味する。
 assignmentは、taskと同じように人に課せられた仕事を指すが、通常、taskよりも規模が大きいものについて言う。

例文:
I’m ready to announce who gets the vacant job in accounting.
「それでは、経理部の空席の仕事に就く人を発表します」

The first task for you is to clear all the tables in the conference hall.

「あなたの最初の仕事は会議室の全部のテーブルをきれいにすることです」

The boss has given us the assignment of new ads for Clinton Toys.
「上司がクリントン・トイズの新しい広告の仕事を指示してきました」

 こうした単語の意味や使い方の違いと知っておくと、TOEIC を受けたときに、反応できるようになります。

本の構成は次のようになっています。

第1章 意味や用法の紛らわしい単語を制覇
1. まず日本語を提示し、それを念頭に、どのような単語が提示されるかを考えます。
2. 次に単語を3つ提示します。
3. その後、それぞれの単語の意味合いやニュアンスを日本語で説明します。
4. 最後に、それぞれの単語について例文を提示します。

第2章 形や意味・用法の紛らわしい熟語を制覇

 この章では、使われる単語が似ていたり、全体として形が似ている熟語を取り上げ、その違いや使い方を学習します。
 熟語は「英語での大和ことば」のようなものです。背景に英語圏の文化が詰まっています。熟語の持つニュアンスを身に付けていきましょう。

第3章 発音の紛らわしい単語を制覇
 この章では、発音の紛らわしい単語を学習します。TOEICのリスニング部門に必須の単語を厳選して取り上げ、次の3つの項目で学習します。
1.母音が紛らわしい単語
2.子音が紛らわしい単語
3.まったく同じ発音の単語(同音異綴語)

音声はすべてダウンロードできます。
 ダイアログ、例文、Speak Up に使う音声は、すべて株式会社ナラボー・プレスのサイトからダウンロードすることができます。ここです
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:23| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

2017年02月08日

VOA Learning English - 2

 きょうも、やさしい英語を聞きましょう。昨年、オバマ前大統領が広島を訪問したときの様子を、やさしい単語を使い、ゆっくりと、ナレーションの専門家が読んでいます。
 英語の初級者にはぴったりの英語です。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。6分あります。聞き直したいときは、左向きのの 左向き三角1 を押してください。



スクリプト

 President Barack Obama laid a wreath in the Japanese city of Hiroshima on Friday.

 Obama is the first American president to visit Hiroshima while in office. The United States dropped an atomic bomb on the city. The bombing there and in the Japanese city of Nagasaki brought a swift end to World War II.

 Thousands at the ceremony watched as the American president stood next to Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at the Peace Memorial Park. Obama then bowed briefly and placed the wreath at the arch memorial built to remember the dead and injured.

 "Death fell from the sky and the world was changed," Obama said.

 The president then met briefly with two survivors who were at the ceremony. He held the hand of 91-year-old Sunao Tsuboi and hugged an emotional Shigeaki Mori.

 Obama talked about the horrors of war and the need to work toward a world without nuclear weapons.

 “Technological progress without an equivalent progress in human institutions can doom us,” he said. Revolutions, or great leaps forward, in technology “requires a moral revolution as well.”

 “This tragedy must not be repeated again,” said Abe in his speech at Hiroshima. “We are determined to realize a world free of nuclear weapons,” he said.

 Some Americans objected to Obama's visit to Hiroshima. They saw his visit as disrespectful to U.S. veterans who fought in the war. For many older Americans, the visit is a painful reminder of conflict and lost lives.

 In Japan, the national broadcaster -NHK- found that 70 percent of Japanese wanted Obama to visit Hiroshima. Only two percent of Japanese polled said they opposed the trip.

 The United States dropped a powerful atomic bomb on Hiroshima and a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki in August 1945. Japan was at war with the U.S., Britain, France, China and other nations -- which formed a group called the Allies. The Allies fought against Japan, Germany and Italy -- which were known as the Axis powers.

 The atomic bombs did two things: First, they killed 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 70,000 in Nagasaki. Many people died later of burns and the from the effects of radiation. The bombs also destroyed both cities, leaving few structures standing.

 Secondly, the bombings brought an end to World War II. They stopped Japan from its attempt to control East Asia.

 Less than two weeks after the attacks, Japan announced its surrender. Japan said it surrendered because of the power of “a new and most cruel bomb” according to History.com.

Since then, Japan has rebuilt and become a modern, rich nation with the help of the United States.

 Chris Appy, a professor at the University of Massachusetts, spoke to VOA before the president's visit.

 “I was very pleased that he decided to go. I think just showing up is (an) important symbolic act that many Japanese have wanted for a long time."

 But Appy said he was disappointed that Obama, in his words, "appears not willing to apologize."

 "After all, I think in our personal lives we consider it the height of maturity when (an) adult is, is willing to take responsibility and accountability for actions -- particularly actions that lead to the suffering of innocent victims."

 Professor Appy said "apology and forgiveness are important in Japan."

 American officials said before the trip that the president would not apologize.

 "As a Japanese national, I want to give a sincere welcome to President Barack Obama. I think we don't need his apology," wrote Kiyohisa Miki from Japan on VOAnews.com. "As President Obama said, Japan and America got over past divides. And now we are important friends for each other. This is enough right?"

 I’m Christopher Jones-Cruise.




 
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:42| Comment(0) | VOA

2017年02月07日

やさしい英語を聞いてみましょう。

 ナチュラルスピードの3分の2の速さの英語を聞いてみましょう。
 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。7分あります。聞き直したいときは、左向きのの 左向き三角1 を押してください。



スクリプト


 During his visit to Asia, U.S. Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said the U.S. is committed to “freedom of navigation” in the disputed waters in the South China Sea. But, he ruled out a military response.

 Mattis said to reporters in Tokyo, “At this time, we do not see any need for dramatic military moves at all.”

Tension between U.S. and China

 Last December, China conducted takeoff and landing drills from its aircraft carrier Liaoning in the South China Sea, according to the state news agency Xinhua. The move followed a phone call between then President-elect Donald Trump and the president of Taiwan. China has long considered Taiwan as a province of China.
 During his confirmation hearing, Rex Tillerson, the new U.S. Secretary of State, called China’s island building an “illegal” activity. He said, “We’re going to have to send China a clear signal that, first, the island-building stops; and, second, your access to those islands also is not going to be allowed.”

 The comment drew sharp reaction from China. Lu Kang is a spokesman for China’s Foreign Ministry. In his daily briefing on Jan. 12, he said that China “has full right to conduct any kind of normal activities on its own territory within its sovereignty.”

 The Global Times is a state-run news organization. It published a strongly worded editorial saying, “Unless Washington plans to wage a large-scale war in the South China Sea, any other approaches to prevent Chinese access to the islands will be foolish.”
 
 China’s military capabilities

 Military experts say China’s current military capabilities do not measure up to Beijing’s tough rhetoric on its continuing activities in the South China Sea.

 Jeffrey Engstrom is a senior policy analyst at the RAND Corporation.

 “Certainly things are more tense than they were just a few weeks ago. But I still don’t think we’re quite at the point of crisis, and certainly not at immediate confrontation.”
In this file photo from Dec. 7, 2016, Chinese navy officials stand in front of the ship Daqing, in San Diego, CA.
In this file photo from Dec. 7, 2016, Chinese navy officials stand in front of the ship Daqing, in San Diego, CA.

 Engstrom said China’s navy is not nearly as well equipped as the United States.

 The Liaoning is the only aircraft carrier in the Chinese naval fleet. It was first built for the Soviet navy and launched in Ukraine in 1988, but was never fully completed. It was upgraded and modernized for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy, which launched it in 2012.

 The Liaoning is smaller than U.S. aircraft carriers and cannot support as many aircraft. It also has a “ski jump” type of system for launching aircraft instead of a catapult system. This limits the size of aircraft that can be launched, as well as how many weapons can be loaded onto the aircraft.

 According to the U.S.-based research group the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Liaoning can carry up to 24 fighter jets and about 12 helicopters.

 The U.S. Navy’s current Nimitz-class warships can handle more than 60 aircraft. One of these is the USS Ronald Reagan, stationed in Japan.
This image provided by the U.S. Navy shows the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan underway in the Pacific Ocean Saturday March 12, 2011 enroute to Japan to render humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. (AP Photo/US Navy - Dylan McCord)

 This image provided by the U.S. Navy shows the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan underway in the Pacific Ocean Saturday March 12, 2011 enroute to Japan to render humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. (AP Photo/US Navy - Dylan McCord)

 Since the Liaoning has only been fully operational for a few years, it also remains behind the U.S. Navy in experience and training.

 Denny Roy is a senior fellow at the Hawaii-based East-West Center. He says China is getting a lot of experience using the Liaoning while building its own new carrier fleet.

 “We understand that the Liaoning is primarily meant for training. Learning to operate an aircraft carrier takes many years, it’s extremely complicated. So it’s reasonable that the Chinese would start with a practice carrier, with the training wheels.”
 
 Roy added that China is thought to be currently working on additional, more advanced aircraft carriers.

 “We think there are more Chinese carriers under construction that will be larger, more capable - and these are intended to actually be prepared to fight.”

 However, he added that even China’s carriers currently under construction will not have the same capacity as the new U.S. super carriers.
In this April 27, 2016 photo, USS Gerald R. Ford is stationed at Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport News, Va. The $12.9 billion warship is the first of the Navy’s next generation of aircraft carriers.
In this April 27, 2016 photo, USS Gerald R. Ford is stationed at Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport News, Va. The $12.9 billion warship is the first of the Navy’s next generation of aircraft carriers.

 The United States is currently building a new class of aircraft carriers known as the Gerald R. Ford class. These $13 billion super carriers are even bigger than the Nimitz class. They can carry more than 4,500 people and at least 75 aircraft. The first of these, the USS Gerald Ford, is expected to be put into service in 2017.

 Jeffrey Engstrom says despite the Liaoning’s limited capabilities, it serves as an important symbol of progress for China’s navy.

 “The symbolism is that China is a great power. Great powers have aircraft carriers, and China too has an aircraft carrier.”

 I’m Bryan Lynn.

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 16:06| Comment(0) | VOA

『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』

 拙著の Kindle 版 『会話に活かす英文法を英語で学ぶ本』 が、割と好調です。今朝の時点で、「有料タイトル」 で1,000位くらいの位置にいます。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

 ここでお求めください。

 この本の内容を、少し詳しく説明しましょう。

 この本は20のユニットからできています。そして、それぞれのユニットの構成は次のようになっています。

ダイアログ
 まず、10〜15のやり取りの会話を聞きます。会話の英文は、テキストに出ていますから、会話の音声を聞きながら、英文を確認することができます。
また、会話の英文には、このユニットで学習する文法が散りばめて使われています。

文法の学習
 ダイアログに出てきた文法を、例文を使いながら英語で学習していきます。各ユニットに2つ〜3つのレッスンがあります。合計で52のレッスンを学習します。

 文法の説明は、すべて英語で書かれています。文法説明のあとに、いくつかの例文を読んだり聞いたりして、その文法の使われ方、そして使い方を確認します。

 この学習で使う英文は、本書全体で729もあります。この例文は、すべて音声になっており聞くことができますし、リピート用のポーズもありますので、会話練習に使えます。

 覚えて発話できるようにすれば、きっとあなたの英会話に役立つことでしょう。

Speak-Up
各レッスンの終わりには、Speak-Up というレッスンがあります。これは音声の指示に従って「クィックレスポンス」を行うものです。英会話に必要な「瞬時の応答能力」が養成されます。

インターネットラジオ講座
 レッスンの文法の説明を、日本語で解説した音声をダウンロードして聞くこともできます。

音声はすべてダウンロードできます。
 ダイアログ、例文、Speak Up に使う音声は、すべて株式会社ナラボー・プレスのサイトからダウンロードすることができます。ここです。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 11:15| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

2017年02月06日

「くびち」という名の鳥わな


 4年前の2013年にアップした「鳥わなの作り方」の記事に、なぜか今でも毎日数人の方がアクセスしてきます。
 それで、もう少し詳しくイラスト付きで説明をしてみたいと思います。

 ただし、作り方を知ったとしても、おそらく役には立ちません。「鳥獣保護法」によって「日本に生息する鳥獣は鳥獣保護法で守られており、基本的には無断で捕獲することができません」ということになっています。悪しからずご承知おきを。

 鳥獣保護法自体は大正時代からありますから、私がこういったわなをかけていた昭和30年代(小学校時代だけで中学に入ったら止めた)でも、本当は禁止されていたのですけどね。屋久島では、ふつうにやっていましたね。

 私が子どもの頃に作っていた、こうしたわなは「くびち」と呼ばれるようですね。その「くびち」という鳥罠の作り方を紹介しましょう。

 まず、下の2つを用意します。これは、山(家の近くの藪)に入る前に、家で作ります。
イラストは、それぞれクリックすると拡大します。

5.jpg

 輪っかになったのは、長さ3メートルくらいの丈夫な糸(畳糸など)を使います。右の1本の糸はその半分よりちょっと長いくらいです。

 上の2つが用意できたら、小さい鉈(なた)やナイフを持って藪に入り、根元の直径が3センチ前後の木を探します。太すぎるとバネが強くなりすぎ、糸が切れやすくなります。

 手頃な木を見つけたら、下のイラストのように150センチ〜2メートルあたりで、上を切り落とします。枝も落とします。

4.jpg

 そして、その先端に上の2つをくくりつけます。

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 そして、一気に出来上がり図になってしまいますが、下のイラストのように、地面には、直径が同じく3〜5センチの棒を横に渡し、両端に重しの石を置いて、はね上がらないようにします。または、片方を地面に突き刺しておいて、はねないようにし、もう一方だけに重しの石を置きます。

wana1.jpg


 正面から見ると、こんな感じです。

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 地面から2〜3センチのところに来るように、跳ね押さえの細い横棒を留めます。これには、小さいへごの茎を使いました。
 小鳥が中のエサをついばむために頭を上下すると、この細い横棒が落ちます。そして、まん中の支えがはね上がって、バネの力で太い横棒が落ち、首が挟まるという仕掛けになっています。

 横から見ると、こんな感じです。哀しげな鳥ですね、このイラストは。

2.jpg
 毎日、学校から帰ると、一目散に見に行きます。でも、獲物が手に入るのは、よくて10日に1羽くらいでした。


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 拙著(赤井田拓弥著)『TOEICレジスタードマーク L & R Test 完全模擬問題』シリーズが好評です。ぜひお求めください。

mogi-conbound.jpg

 >アマゾンの Kindleアップルの iBooks楽天ブックスの電子書籍 でご購入できます。

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:39| Comment(2) | 屋久島のこと