2017年02月22日

ビラの語源? 「黄昏」 は 「誰そ彼」 か本当に?


post-no-bills.JPG

 post という動詞は、今では Facebook Twitter などでもおなじみの用語で、日本語としても理解されています。Post-It という付箋もありますね。

 bill は「ビラ、貼り紙」という意味です。

 ほかにもいろいろ「請求書、札、議案、法案、くちばし」などの意味があります。

 bill と 「ビラ」 は発音が似ているので、ビラの語源かと思ってしまいますが、どうなんでしょう?

 『広辞苑』はビラを 「bill の訛」 とし、「宣伝広告のために人目につく所に張り出したり通行人に配ったりする紙片」 と説明しています。そして、見出しは 「ビラ」 とカタカナです。

 また、講談社の『日本語大辞典』では、見出しを 「びら」 とひらがなにし、「片」 という漢字を当てています。語義は 『広辞苑』 とほぼ同じです。「花びら」の 「びら」 なんでしょうね。

 でも、どうして上に何も付いていないのに 「びら」 と濁るんでしょう?

 濁るということで私がいつも 「変だ」 と思っているのが、黄昏 (たそがれ) の語源とされる 「誰そ彼」 です。江戸時代にはすでに語源として確立していたとかいいますけどね。

 「彼」 は、上に何か付くと濁るんでしょうか。「元彼」は 「もとかれ」 で、濁りませんけどね。「あたしのもとがれがさぁ」と言いませんものね。

 私は 「冬枯れ」 などの 「枯れ」 だと思うんですけどね。まだ、調べ上げていません。
たそ」が何なのかわかりませんし。



 この本で、こうした英語の看板や標識の表現を見てみませんか。

 300円です。

SeikatuCover_web-sho.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 16:31| Comment(0) | 生活英語

-o で終わる名詞の複数形に付く -es と -s の違い

 昔、アメリカのブッシュ大統領 (父親のほう) の副大統領候補が、大統領選挙のキャンペーンでニュージャージーの小学校を訪れました。

 そこでは英語のつづり方のコンテストが行なわれており、ある少年が黒板に potato と書いたところ、それを見ていたクエール氏は 「惜しいネ」 と言って、少年が書いた potato という文字の後ろに e を付け加え、potatoe としたのでした。

 その副大統領候補はダン・クエールという人で、喰えーるどころか喰えない話でした。

 この副大統領候補は、potatoes という複数形のつづりは知っていたわけですね。ま、そりゃそうでしょうね。
 
 そして、複数形の語尾には -s が付くというルールに則って語尾から -s だけを差し引き、potaoe というつづりを残してしまったわけですね。

 さて、私たちは、-o で終わる単語の複数形には -es が付く場合と -s が付く場合があると習うかと思います。

 【例】 potato  →  potatoes
     tomato  →  tomatoes
     photo   →  photos
     piano   →  pianos


 なぜでしょう? そして、違いはどこから来るのでしょうか。

 もともと、-o で終わる単語の複数形には -es しか付かないのです。そして、-s しか付かない単語は、語源に原因があるのです。

 語尾に -es が付く tomato potato も、もともとこのつづりですが、photo は、もともと photograph なのです。そして、piano は pianoforte です。

 こうした単語は -o で終わるわけではありませんから、複数形には -s のみが付くというわけです。ですから、略語になっても、複数形には -s のみが付くというわけですね。



 こういった単語の話は、この本で学習してみませんか。

500円です。

Magi_book_web.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:51| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

2017年02月21日

make love to someone か make love with someone か?

 前のブログで、第4文型を第3文型に書き換える (言い換える) とき、前置詞に to を使うか for を使うかは、次のルールで決定すると書きました。

 1. 相手がいないと行為が成立しない場合には、to を使う。
 2. 相手がいなくても行為が成立する場合には、for を使う。


 そして、make という動詞は make a doll for my daughter のように、ふつうは for を使うと述べ、さらに、make to を使わなければならない場合が1つだけあるとも書きました。

 そして、前回のブログの答えは、make love to someone です。このときは、for ではなく to にしないと、変な意味になってしまいます。


 歌のタイトルや歌詞で、使い方を見てみましょう。

まず、Mashmakhan というカナダのグループが歌った As the Years Go By (日本題 『霧の中の二人』 では、次のように to を使っています。

At seventeen a girl says, do you love me
And it really means, will you respect me
The teenage boy answers, I love you
But it really means, can I make love to you


 また、カナダの Anne Murray という人の "Make Love To Me" でも、次のように to を使って表現しています。

Say it to me gently, let the sweet talk flow
Come a little closer, make love to me.


 しかし、Ian Dury という人は、“Wake Up And Make Love With Me” という歌を歌っています。

 近年、to を使った表現は男性側からの一方的な感じに聞こえるということで、古い言い方だとされ、二人の合意による行為であることを表現するには with にすべきだという説もよく聞かれるようになりました。

 こうしたことからか、今では make love という表現よりも have sex with ... のほうが多く使われるようです。

do は使いませんので、念のため。


 下の本では、こうした文法の微妙な使い分けなどを説明しています。ここからお求めください。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 14:13| Comment(0) | 生活英語

第3文型での to と for の使い分け

 学校の英語の授業や入試対策の問題集で「第4 文型から第3 文型への書き換え」を学習した経験があることでしょう。

 例えば、次のような書き換えです。

  第4文型 ― I’ll show you the pictures.
  第3文型 → I’ll show the pictures to you.

  第4文型 ― My father bought me a new computer.
  第3文型 → My father bought a new computer for me.

 このとき、多くの人は to for の使い分けに悩むのではないでしょうか。

 ほとんどの参考書では 「to をとる動詞群、for をとる動詞群」 のように分別されており、また、多くの受験生は個々の動詞を暗記するのに苦労したことでしょう。そうした単語を1つ1つ暗記していくのは大変ですね。とっさのときにうまく使い分けられるかどうかも心配になることでしょう。

 お疲れさまでした。ですが、これからはそんな苦労はしなくても済みます

 実は、簡単で絶対に忘れない分類法があるのです。次のように覚えてください。

  相手がいないと行為が成立しない場合には to を使い、相手がいなくても行為が成立する動詞には for を使う。

 I showed him the pictures I took. は、相手(him)がいないと行為が成立しませんから、写真を見せたときに「彼」がいたことがはっきりしています。
 この文を第3文型に書き換える(言い換える)場合は、to を使って次のようにします。

  I showed the pictures I took to him.

 しかし、I bought him the latest-design computer. では、買いに行った店に「彼」がいっしょに行ったかどうかは、はっきりしません。buy a computer は、買ってあげる人がいなくても行為が成立するからです。
 こうした動詞の中で、文法書などでは、make は My mother made a doll for me. のように「for をとる動詞群」の中に分類されています。

 ですが、<make 〜 to 誰々>でなければならない場合があります。どういう場合でしょうか。


 それは、「
相手がいないと行為が成立しないとき」 です。

 その答えは、次回のブログで。お楽しみに〜。

 下の本では、こうした文法の微妙な使い分けなどを説明しています。ここからお求めください。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:18| Comment(0) | 生活英語

「人民の、人民による、人民のための政治」

 あの有名なリンカーンの「ゲティスバーグ演説」を聞きましょう。

 もちろん、リンカーン自身の声ではありませんが、訓練された Voice of America のナレーターのすばらしい声です。
 2分30秒の短いものです。じっくりと聞きましょう。

 演説のときの写真です。右上のほうにリンカーンが見えますね。写真はクリックすると拡大します。

F595D9AD-F6F5-4151-ABBF-A8B67C21D498_cx0_cy13_cw0_w1023_r1_s.jpg

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。



 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

 Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives, that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

 But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate -- we cannot consecrate -- we cannot hallow, this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract.

 The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work for which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

 It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.



 この演説で使われている重要語句を説明しておきましょう。日本語訳や解釈はいろいろなところでなされていますので、検索してみてください。

score 「20」 four score and seven years ago は「87年前」という意味です。hundred や thousand のように、数えるときは複数形にしないで使います。
【例】 two hundred years ago 「200年前」

bring forth 「もたらす」
a new nation, conceived in Liberty 「自由という理念によってうち建てられた新しい国家」
dedicate 「(公式に)捧げる」
proposition 「信条、命題」  また、州の条例などの修正案」という意味でも使われます。
consecrate 「聖別する、神聖なものとする」
devotion 「献身的愛」
resolve 「堅く決心する」
in vain 「無駄になって」


この本では、アメリカのいろいろな生活英語が学べます。

SeikatuCover_web.jpg


posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:28| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月20日

江戸期の正月に月は出ない。

 以前にもほかの作家の作品で、このことを書きました。今日は葉室麟氏の作品です。

 葉室氏の勘違いなのか、私の理解不足なのか分かりませんが、次の展開がちょっと気になりました。写真はクリックすると拡大します。拡大して読んでください。

   20170220192113.jpg

 まず、「年が明けた。 正月早々、....」 とあります。そして、「年賀の挨拶」 とありますから、7日も10日も経ってからではないでしょう。たぶん三が日のあいだだと思われます。

 旧暦では、正月(月の初め)は新月です。つまり、夜に月は見えません。

 作品のこの場面が正月3日だとしたら、三日月です。次の写真のように 「月を見上げた」のは、夜暗くなってからかなりが経った時刻と思われますから、夜半でしょうか。

   20170220192148.jpg

とすると、三日月は、すでに沈んでいるはずです。

葉室氏の作品は数多く読みましたが、彼は時代考証がすばらしく、こんなミスを犯すとは思えないのです。私の理解力のなさでしょうかね。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:53| Comment(0) | 雑文

日常会話での 「不同意」 の表現

 やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語で、日常英会話の表現を聞いてみましょう。きょうは、不同意を示す表現集です。

 ちょっと長くて9分41秒あります。ゆっくりした英語ですから、疲れずに聞けるかと思います。

スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。




 For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

 Imagine that you are walking down the street in an American city. You might hear short conversations as you pass people. One such short conversation might sound like this:

A: Should we try that restaurant? I hear the food is cheap!
B: Their food is supposed to be bad, though.*  There's a reason the food is cheap!
A: Yeah but I need to save money for my Mom's Christmas gift!

 The point of this conversation is not to teach you that America has a lot of bad restaurants.  In fact, America does have some very good restaurants!

 The point of this conversation is to show you how some Americans disagree with each other in everyday conversation. These friendly disagreements, for example, might be between friends who are trying to decide what they want to do.

 Americans often use the words, though and but, to show contrast or disagreement. They may use these words in specific ways to be more or less forceful.

 In today's report, we will explore how the words though and but are used in everyday conversation.

Though

 In many grammar books, you will see that though introduces a clause that shows an unexpected result.
 For example, you might read a sentence such as this: "Though it was raining, we went for a walk."
 Though is not commonly used this way in everyday conversation.

 Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber are English grammar experts. They say that in conversation, though is commonly used as an adverb. The adverb can show a transition between sentences. In other words, it links ideas between sentences. When though is used as a transition, it shows disagreement or contrast.

It often appears at the end of a sentence.

3 Common Uses of Though in Conversation


 Though has three common uses in conversation, say Conrad and Biber.

#1 Showing contrast with a previous statement

 First, a speaker can use though to express contrast with their own statement.
 So, for example, a speaker talking about a new pair of jeans might say the following:

  "These jeans are a little loose. I like the color, though."

#2 Showing contrast with another speaker's statement

 The second common use of though is to show a contrast with another speaker's point. It does not necessarily mean that one speaker disagrees with the other, it just means that one speaker is adding a contrasting point to the statement of the other speaker.

Here is an example:

 A: These jeans are really nice.
 B: Yeah, they're expensive, though.


#3 Showing disagreement with another speaker

 The third common use of though is to show disagreement with another speaker's previous statement.

Consider this example:

 A: These jeans are really nice!
 B: They're poorly made, though.


 Despite their disagreement, these two speakers are showing a polite way to disagree.
 Why? Because it is a less direct way of disagreeing. Often, Americans prefer less direct ways of speaking particularly when disagreeing.
 A more direct and forceful way of disagreeing would be in the following example:

  A: These jeans are really nice!
  B: No, they are not.

 Some Americans would consider this to be an impolite way to disagree ? especially if the other person was not well known to them!

This is because the language is much more direct and negative.

 What about but in conversation?
 The word but also shows contrast or disagreement. In everyday conversation, but is a conjunction that often appears at the beginning of a sentence.

 Although though and but might seem alike, you will learn that there are important differences between how they are used in conversation.

Consider this example:

  A: I really like those jeans!
  B: But you told me last week that you don't like jeans!


 The second speaker is directly disagreeing with the first person's statement.
 Why did the speaker choose to start the sentence with but?
 The second speaker also could have said, "You told me last week that you don't like jeans, though!"

 The speaker, who disagrees by using the word but, probably has strong feelings about the jeans.
 Starting the sentence with a word ? such as but -- that shows disagreement is a stronger and more forceful way to speak.


Other ways to use ‘but’


 One way that Americans reduce the force of the word but is to put words in front of it. The most common way to do this is to use the word yeah.

 Here is an example of what this sounds like:

  A: I really like those jeans!
  B: Yeah but you told me last week that you don't like jeans!


 This way of disagreeing, even though it is informal, sounds softer and less forceful. Americans may choose to say yeah first because it sets a pleasant tone to the sentence. By beginning the sentence with the agreeable word, yeah, speakers can show that the strength of their disagreement is not very strong.

 Using yeah but is less polite than using though, say Conrad and Biber. In addition, it is less forceful than using but alone.


What can you do?

 Think back to the conversation at the beginning of this story:

  A: Should we try that restaurant? I hear the food is cheap!
  B: Their food is supposed to be bad, though. There's a reason the food is cheap!
  A: Yeah but I need to save money for my Mom's Christmas gift!


 You will notice that the two speakers show contrast or disagreement with the word though. One speaker uses yeah but when disagreeing with the other.

 Learning these ways to disagree is not easy. It can take a long time to learn how grammar, word choice, and culture work together.
 
 However, the next time you are watching an American film or TV show, try to focus on how speakers disagree with each other. You might notice that they disagree, or show contrast, in different ways.

 Think about the situation to understand how and why the speakers might be disagreeing with each other.
 In future Everyday Grammar stories, we will explore these issues in more detail.

 I’m Anne Ball. And I’m John Russell.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:24| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

停まっているときに stopping は使えない

 電車の車内表示が英語や韓国語、中国語になった車輌も増えてきました。こんな表示が出ます。
もうすぐ○○駅に到着します」 という、近未来を表す進行形ですね。

arriving.jpg

 これは正しい使い方です。


 そして、「ただいま○○駅に停車中」 というときに、下の表示が出ます。

stopping.jpg


 しかし、この表示は間違っています

 stop 瞬間動作動詞と言われるものです。

 stop という動詞は、止まった瞬間にその動作は終わってしまいます。ですから、進行形を使ったからといって 「状態」が続いていることを表すことはできないのです。

 例えば、I’m finishing my homework. と言えば、まだ宿題は終わっていません。
そして、My grandfather is dying. と言えば、まだおじいさんは生きています。「死んでいる」ではありません。

 これらと同じで、stopping だと、まだ止まっていません。限りなく 「アキレスと亀」 の状態です。arriving at 〜 は「〜に到着しつつある」 という意味で 「到着している」 ではありません。


 では、「○○駅に停まっている」は、どう言えばよいのでしょうか。

 The train is staying at Chofu Station. だと、なんか夜通し停まっている感じですね。

 ふつうは、The train is standing at Chofu Station. のように言うようです。


 下の本では、こうした文法の微妙な使い分けなどを説明しています。ここからお求めください。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:42| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月17日

春一番

 きょう、関東地方は春一番の強い風が吹きました。
 それで、思い出すのは、キャンディーズの『春一番』です。

 訳してみました。

Melted snow is flowing as a stream
Babies of horsetail are shyly appearing
Spring is coming
Why don’t you take on a little?

Breeze is carrying warm air
A stranger boy came pick up the girl next-door
Spring is coming
Why don’t you take your boyfriend out?

Happiness will not come if you keep crying
Take off your heavy coat and go out
Spring is coming
Why don’t you find a new love?


 ついでに、これもお聞きになってください。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 22:46| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

キム・ジョンナム氏暗殺のニュース(時間的に早いほう)


 こちらのほうが早い情報のニュースです。そして、ずっと短いです。





 South Korean media say the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has been killed in Malaysia.

 A South Korean government official said that Kim Jong Nam was killed Monday, the Yonhap news agency reported.

 The official did not provide additional information.

 Two unidentified female agents reportedly used poisoned needles to kill Kim at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The two then fled the area in a taxi. The women are believed to have been working for North Korea.

 South Korea’s National Intelligence Service neither confirmed nor denied the story.

 Kim Jong Nam spent large amounts of time outside North Korea. He also had voiced disapproval of his family’s control of the country.

 He and his younger brother, North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, are both sons of former North Korean leader Kim Jong Il. However, they had different mothers. The older brother was once considered to be the heir of his father and was expected to lead the country.

 However, Kim Jong Nam fell from favor with his father in 2001. That year, he attempted to enter Japan with a false passport, reportedly to visit Tokyo Disneyland.

 Since that time, he has lived mainly in the Chinese territory of Macau.

 Kim Jong Nam was believed to be close to his uncle, Joang Song Thaek. Joang was considered the second most powerful man in North Korea, but he was executed in 2013. Kim Jong Un reportedly ordered his execution.
 
 In previous years, Kim Jong Nam expressed disinterest in leading North Korea. “Personally, I am against third-generation succession,” he told Japan’s Asahi TV in 2010.

 Kim Jong Il died in December 2011, when Kim Jong Un took power.

 “I hope my younger brother will do his best for the sake of North Koreans’ prosperous lives,” he reportedly said.

 I’m Mario Ritter.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 17:32| Comment(0) | 生活英語

キム・ジョンナム氏暗殺のニュースを聞いてみましょう。

 やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語で、北朝鮮のキム・ジョンナム氏暗殺のニュースを聞いてみましょう。
 ちょっと長くて6分43秒ありますが、頑張って。
スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。




 The apparent assassination of the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has increased support for critics of the country’s government.

 Those critics accuse North Korea of being a state that operates outside the law. They say the government kills its enemies and depends on criminal activity for survival.

 Malaysian officials continue to investigate the death of Kim Jong Nam, who was attacked at Kuala Lumpur International Airport on Monday. He died a short time later.

 Kim Jong Nam and Kim Jong Un are sons of former North Korean leader Kim Jong Il.

 On Thursday, Malaysian police said they arrested a woman suspected of involvement in the killing. She is said to have an Indonesian passport.

 Another woman was arrested Wednesday on suspicion of involvement in the case. She reportedly had Vietnamese travel papers.

 Police also detained a man who provided information that led to the arrest of one of the women.

 South Korean officials have said two North Korean female agents poisoned Kim Jong Nam at the airport. They say the women sprayed liquid droplets at him and then held a cloth over his face.

 That information is different from early reports of how Kim Jong Nam may have been poisoned.

 Airport cameras captured images of the suspects. One woman wore a shirt with the letters “LOL” on the front.

 There are reports that Malaysian officials have refused efforts by North Korean officials to stop a medical exam of the body.

 North Korean critics have described the government as a highly corrupt, family-led criminal operation. They say North Korea is active in smuggling, secretly transporting goods and other materials in and out of the country.

 Critics also say the government is involved in drug trafficking and arms dealing, including the exchange of nuclear materials and missile parts. They say all the money earned goes to North Korea’s wealthy leadership.

 In 2012, United Nations diplomats reported on the discovery of North Korean-made graphite cylinders on a Chinese ship traveling to Syria. They said the tubes could be used to make missiles.

 In 2005, an official from Ireland was arrested for having high-quality counterfeit copies of money from the United States. The counterfeit $100 bills reportedly were made in North Korea.

 In 2016, a British citizen was sentenced to 15 years in prison for plotting to import 100 kilograms of North Korean methamphetamine drugs into the U.S.

 Robert Kelly teaches at Pusan National University in South Korea. He says he would not be surprised if the North Korean leadership was to blame for the killing of Kim Jong Nam.

ここは飛ばしても大丈夫です。

 “You know, the North Koreans, they just don’t follow the rules, both internally and externally. They treat their own people terribly and overseas they basically have engaged in this massive illicit economy and it’s not surprising that that would also include illicit political behaviors like assassinations.”


 Kim Jong Nam was once considered a possible replacement for Kim Jong Il as North Korea’s head of state. But the son was caught trying to enter Japan with a false passport in 2001, reportedly to visit Tokyo Disneyland. After that, Kim Jong Nam spent most of his time in Macau.

 In 2012, he wrote a note to a Japanese reporter. It said, “The Kim Jong-un regime will not last long. Without reforms.”

 The South Korean National Intelligence Service said recently that the North Korean leader had given a “standing order” for his half-brother’s killing when he took power.

 Robert Kelly says stopping unlawful activity by North Korea’s leadership could put pressure on the government to change. But, he says, that would require cooperation from China, North Korea’s main ally. He thinks China is unwilling to do anything that would weaken the Kim family’s control and that would create instability within its neighbor.

 As of Thursday, there was no news of Kim Jong Nam’s death in North Korean media.

 North Korean leader Kim Jong Un marked the birthday of his father Kim Jong Il, which is a national holiday in the country.

 I’m Mario Ritter.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 17:15| Comment(0) | 生活英語

turn into ... の2つの意味

20170216144249.jpg


 このカードの英文には turn into が2回出てきますね。

 the frog turned into an absolutely gorgeous sexy young prince(カエルはものすごくゴージャスでセクシーな若い王子様に変わったのです)と、what the old lady turned into? です。


2つめは、「曲がって〜に入っていく」という意味で使われています。

 このカードを開けると、次の文が書いてあります。


 The first motel she could find.

 元気なおばあさんですねぇ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:15| Comment(0) | 生活英語

shop と store の違い

 shop も 「店」 ですし、store も 「店」 です。どう違うのでしょうか。

 アメリカのサイトなどで、ネイティブ・スピーカーが 「小さいのが shop で大きいのが store だ」 と答えていたりしますが、変な回答です。英語の母語話者でも知らないことは多いものだという典型でしょうね。

 よく 「ネイティブはこう言う」 と言って、英語母語者の言うことを金科玉条のごとく信じる人も多いようですが、いつもマユに唾を引いて考えたほうがよいと思います。

 では、shop store の違いを考えてみましょう。

 20170216144249.jpg


 このカードでは、pet store という表現が出ていますね。日本語では、私たちはふつう 「ペットショップ」 と言いますから、「ペットストア」 にはちょっと違和感を感じますね。

 coffee shop coffee store はどう違うと思いますか。coffee shop はコーヒーを淹れて出してくれる店ですね。
 coffee store は? こちらはコーヒー豆を売っている店です。コーヒーは飲めません。サンプルで飲ませてくれるところもあるかもしれませんが。

 では、book storebook shop の違いは?
 「book shop なんてないよ」と言われるかもしれません。イギリスにはあります。

 コーヒー店の例で考えると、book store は本を売っている店で、book shop は本を作っている店のように思えますが、これは、昔、悪くなった本を繕い直してくれていた店の名残りの呼び方です。製本をやり直してくれる店です。

 もうお分かりですね。shop は何らかの作業を提供してくれる店で、store は品物を置いて売っている店のことです。

 workshop という語があります。研修の中でも、ワークショップは、何らかの作業などをして、技術などを習得する研修ですね。ただ講師の話を聞くだけの研修はワークショップと言いません。

つまり、shop store は、店の規模の違いではないということですね。


 下の本には、こうしたまぎらわしい意味や用法の単語を、例文を付けて比較説明しています。
 ここからお求めください。

5137TI8YRHL.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:55| Comment(0) | 生活英語

スマホと私のどっちが大事なの?

 Voice of America American Mosaic (アメリカの種々相)という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 バレンタインデーも過ぎてしまいましたが、きょうは、「スマホと私のどっちが大事なの?」と、私が勝手に題した話題です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分34秒あります。



 Forget the chocolates, flowers and jewelry.

 This Valentine’s Day, February 14, perhaps the best gift you can give the love of your life is your undivided attention. Sadly, for many of us, that is easier said than done.

 An international study of more than 13,000 adults found that many people say modern technology has affected relations with their partner. Almost 40 percent of those questioned said their partner paid more attention to their mobile device than to them.

 Intel Security Group, a private company, paid for the study. It examined how romantic relationships are affected by a person's use of social media and the Internet.

 The research included both old and new relationships. Thirty-three percent of those asked reported that they had to compete against a mobile device for attention on a first date.

 Apparently, we have as much love for our digital devices as for the people we love. Intel’s survey found that adults spend almost equal amounts of time online at home as they do interacting directly.

 And a lot of married couples, friends and family members argue about time spent on mobile devices.

 Gary Davis is the chief consumer security officer at Intel Security. He says recognition of our electronic device involvement is important.

 “If you have a pattern where you’re at dinner, you’re out on a date, you're home having a quiet evening, maybe watching a show, or just enjoying a fire ... and a device comes into play, it’s that awkward thing that I don’t think enough people think about. And when they don’t think about it, they don’t understand the wear and tear it’s causing on the relationship.”

 Edward Spector holds a similar opinion.

 “We’re not thoughtfully progressing in terms of how we’re using technology.”

 Spector works as a psychologist in Bethesda, Maryland. He studies human behavior, and specializes in technology dependence.

 "So, we have to be thoughtful about the consequences of connecting to a particular social network, or allowing yourself to have the habit of the last hour and a half of your evening be checking your Facebook, or always responding to a text immediately."

 Rules or time limits on a device might be good, in theory. However, Intel’s survey found that 45 percent of those questioned do not set rules. Another 45 percent said they got into arguments about how much they are on their phones when spending time with loved ones.

 The lack of social rules about digital behavior might be the result of the newness of the issue.

 Past generations did not have the technologies, said psychologist Spector.

 “In this situation, our elders know nothing. In fact, the knowledge and competence is moving towards the youngest generation that’s using the technology because they’re the ones bounding forward fearlessly, and finding out what ways you can get in trouble.”

 That trouble may include the sharing of sensitive information. Intel’s research found nearly 30 percent of couples share passwords to social media sites. This could be a problem when relationships end.

 Intel’s Gary Davis advises that people step away from electronic devices to truly connect with other people.

 “Understand the value of distancing yourself from your device and allow yourself to be engaged with that person that means the most to you,” said Davis.

I'm Caty Weaver.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:45| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月16日

乗り物に使う on と in の区別

 乗り物に「〜に乗って」と言うとき、in を使うのか on なのか迷う人も多いのではないでしょうか。on the bus、on the train、on the plane、on the ship などは on なのに、なぜ乗用車だけ in the car なのでしょうか。

 英語のサイトにネイティブ・スピーカーが文法問題に回答するものがあり、「屋根のない乗り物には on を使う」だとか「中で移動できるくらい広い乗り物には in を使う」など珍説もあったりしますが、どれも的を射ていません。

 簡単に覚えられ、忘れない考え方があります。

 上に述べたバス、電車、列車、飛行機、船は、どれもが商業的に毎回同じルートを移動していることがポイントです。つまり、「決まったの上」を運行しているのです。on the line という考え方です。

 今では無線がほとんどですが、電話もインターネットも、出だしは線がつながっていました。ですから、on the phone であり、on the Internet と言います。

 屋根のあるのは in で、ないのが on のように区別するという人もいますが、今では、ほとんどの乗り物に屋根がありますから、on を使う理由が説明できませんね。

 こうした商用の乗り物に対して、自家用車はどこでも自由に走り、決まった路線がありません。ですから、on ではなく in を使います。in the car、in my car のように言います。
 タクシーは商業用ですが、同じルートを走るわけではありませんので、in a taxi のように in を使います。

 on the plane だからすべての飛行機は on なのかと思ってしまいますが、in a small plane という表現があります。これは small がミソです。自家用機なのですね。つまり、商業用のコマーシャルルートのように毎回同じ「線」を飛ぶわけではありませんから、on は使わず in になるわけです。

 このように路線が決まった乗り物には on を使い、どこでも自由に行ける乗り物には in が基本です。

 だからと言って、「on ではない乗り物は in だ」のように結論づけることもできません。バイクや自転車や馬は、商用ルートがあるわけではありませんが、on を使います。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:36| Comment(0) | 生活英語

アンドリュー・ジャクソンに例えられるトランプ

 Voice of America の The Making of a Nation (国の成り立ち)という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、トランプ大統領と第7代大統領のアンドリュー・ジャクソンを比較している話です。
 日本語では、議員や首相などに使う 「」 と 「」 は区別していますが、英語では「大統領」も「大統領」も、同じく former president です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分14秒あります。




 Donald Trump has done a lot in his first week as president of the United States.
 Trump canceled several of former President Barack Obama’s executive orders. He signed some of his own executive orders. He also met with members of the U.S. intelligence community.

 In between, the new president chose artwork to hang in his office at the White House. One is a painting of former President Andrew Jackson.

 Some Americans say his choice of the painting is not a surprise. Many have been comparing President Trump with the former president.

 Jackson became America’s seventh president in 1828. Historians consider the 1828 election one of the more negative presidential campaigns. Many people say the 2016 election campaign was also extremely negative.

 That is just the beginning of the comparisons between Trump and Jackson, observers say. Both men campaigned as populists – candidates who say they represent ordinary people. Both are also known as political outsiders and conservatives. And, both are known for having strong personalities.

 Jackson, like Trump, was fiercely independent. He said that he alone would define his administration’s policies.

 Trump spoke about conditions in the United States, and around the world, at the Republican Party’s national convention last summer.

 “I alone can fix it,” he said. Trump was talking of, in his words, “poverty and violence at home,” and “war and destruction abroad.”

 Observers have also noted similar parts of his inaugural speech to the speech given by former President Jackson.

 Andrew Jackson served two terms in office. He was a member of the Democratic Party -- the conservative party at that time in American history.

 Donald Trump once considered himself a Democrat. He was also, at one time, an independent. He is now a Republican -- the major conservative party in America today.

 But there are some clear differences between the two presidents, says writer Richard Dean Young. He has argued that Trump is not exactly a modern-day Jackson.

 “Historical comparisons are tricky,” Young told VOA.

 One difference is that Jackson served in the U.S. military, Young said. He fought in battles against Native Americans and, later, against British forces.

 Trump, on the other hand, is a billionaire businessman from New York City. In Young’s words, Trump is “a city boy with absolutely no experience in military matters.”

 "Jackson was ‘one of the people,’ definitely not a city boy,” Young said.

 Margaret O’Mara is a professor of history at the University of Washington in Seattle. She said Trump’s populist-conservative message does resemble that of Andrew Jackson’s.

 O’Mara said, “Trump is extraordinary.” And the country, she said, has never elected a populist quite like him before.

 O’Mara said it is still too early to predict Trump’s place in history.

 "It is too soon to make judgments about his place in presidential history. That will depend on what he does, how he does it," O’Mara said.

 I'm Caty Weaver.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:40| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月15日

神田川

You may have already forgotten ...
Tying a red towel around the neck
You and I went to the bathhouse on the back street

We promised to come out together
Well, you always kept me waiting

My washed hair froze to the core
I was shivering and my soapbox rattled

You held me tight and said
Sorry, you became cold

Back then being young
I was not afraid of anything
The only thing I was afraid of losing
Was your warmth



 「神田川」 の1番の最後は 「あなたのやさしさが怖かった」 ですが、「やさしさを失うのが怖い」 と考えるほうがいいだろうと考えて、afraid of losing を補ってみました。

 また、「やさしさ」 は kindness をすぐに思い浮かべますが、風呂上がりで冷めた身体を抱いてくれた 「彼の温かさ」 と 「やさしさ」 を結びつけて、warmth としてみました。

0139B759.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:50| Comment(0) | 雑文

弘法も筆のあやまり ―― ネイティブ・スピーカーも文法を間違える


 下の写真は、アメリカのスーパーマーケットのレジにある掲示です。

express-lane.jpg

 アメリカ人たちは、スーパーで毎日ショッピングをすることは、ほとんどありません。家の冷蔵庫も巨大ですから、週末にまとめて大量に買い込みます。
 ですから、レジでは一人一人の精算に時間がかかるのです。

 数品しか買わない人にとっては、長い列に待たされるとイライラします。

 そこで、こんな掲示を設置して、そうした人たちにすばやく対応しようというわけです。


 しかし、この less は文法的に間違っています。10 items のように数えられる名詞が使われていますから、並べて比較するのであれば、less ではなく fewer にすべきです。

 下の写真の本では、こうした看板や交通標識の写真を約60枚使い、その表現や文法などを詳しく解説しています。

SeikatuCover_web.jpg

 そして、わずか300円です。スマホでも見られますよ。

 ここから進んでください。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:07| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

stump という単語を使ったイディオムとその歴史

 Voice of America の Words and Their Stories という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。

 きょうは、stump という単語がどういうイディオムで、また大統領のスピーチの中で使われているかを話しています。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。6分11秒あります。



 And now the VOA Learning English program, Words and Their Stories.

 Every word has its own story. What does it mean? Where did it come from? And how did it get into our language?

 There are many stories of early settlers of America: the people who moved westward and opened up new territory. Many of these settlers were farmers who wanted a new home, a piece of land, some crops and cattle.

 So, they moved west, cutting their way through difficult terrain, searching for a good place to live and farm. When they found it, they took out their axes and cut down trees. This was hard work. One of the hardest tasks was pulling up tree stumps from the ground.

 And that’s our word today -- “stump.”

 A tree stump is the part of a tree that remains in the ground after the tree is cut down. Stumps can also be the part of something such as a pencil that remains after the rest has been worn away.

 Tree stumps gave these early American farmers big problems. Some stumps were so big that farmers had to use two or three horses to pull them out.

 Stumps became part of life and part of the language. If someone asked a settler if they had cleared the land, they might answer: “Nope. I’m still stumped.” This means they did not know how to get rid of the tree stumps from the ground.

 And today, this meaning of the word is the same. To be stumped is to not know what to do or say. You are confused. You are blocked.

 During the early days of America, the trees fell fast. The stumps remained for years. Sometimes they became part of the landscape. Some writers even wrote stories about tree stumps.

 One day in 1716, a visitor named Ann Maury left the east coast to visit a so-called “stump town” in the west.

 “I went into the middle of the town,” she wrote. “And there, right in the center, surrounded by wooden buildings, was the great stump of a tree. I asked why this stump had not been pulled up. ‘Oh, we just never thought of it,’ was the answer. ‘Besides,’ the townspeople explained, ‘whenever one of the two chiefs has something to say, he stands upon this stump and is raised higher than the others. In this way, he can be heard better.’”

 When George Washington became commander of all the colonial troops in 1775, he supposedly used stumps to talk to his troops.

 In time, anyone who stood on a stump and spoke to the people became a “stump speaker.” As we know, politicians like to speak to crowds. So, it wasn’t long before “stump” entered politics.

 Presidential candidates travel all over the country to explain their positions on issues to voters and try to win their support.

 Jon Favreau was a speechwriter for President Barack Obama. He explained in an ABC news video that a stump speech is a candidate’s “argument” for why he or she should be elected.

 The speechwriter says that stump speeches contain everything a voter needs to know about where a candidate stands on issues important to that campaign.

 He says that stump speeches are useful “campaign tools that they (politicians) can use on the road.” They can simply reuse the same speech over and over or change it a little to fit each audience.

 We also use “stump” as a verb. The Online Etymology Dictionary defines “stump” as to "go on a speaking tour during a political campaign." The site says that usage began in 1838.

 These days, politicians are “stumping” when they go into their same old speech that they have given over and over and over again. So, it is no surprise that “stumping” used this way is often not a good thing.

 And that is the end of Words and Their Stories. If this story has left you feeling stumped, write us a comment. We will help you figure it out!

 I’m Anna Matteo.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:09| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月14日

なごり雪

You are waiting for a train
Standing next to you
I am worrying about the time
Unseasonal snow is falling

This will be the last time
I see snow falling in Tokyo
So you said sadly

Now I see the season has come
It's the time when late spring snow falls
After we've had too much fun

Now it's spring
And you have become pretty
Much prettier than last year



 融け残った雪は 「なごり雪」 ではありません。
 融け残った雪は 「友待つ雪」 といいます。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 23:25| Comment(0) | 雑文