2017年02月28日

stop smoking と stop to smoke


 stop smoking stop to smoke のちがい、これは受験英語の定番ですね。「目的語として不定詞をとる動詞、動名詞をとる動詞」のところで習います。
 
 そして、「stop to smoketo smoke は副詞的用法の不定詞なので、目的語ではない」 といった説明がなされたりします。

 そして、上のタイトルの語句は、それぞれ 「タバコをやめる(禁煙する)」と「タバコを吸うために立ち止まる」と訳されますね。

 でも、今は路上禁煙の場所が多くなってきていますから、stop to smoke は、そのうち使えなくなりますよ。ただ、 stop to smoke は 「仕事の手を休める」 という意味にもなりますから、死語になるわけではないかも。

 ところで、以前に編集した雑誌に He stopped to put on a condom. という文がありました。そして、その著者は「彼はコンドームを着けるのをやめた」という訳をつけていました。

 これは大きな誤訳です。

 これは「コンドームを着けるために動きを止めた」ということです。まるっきり逆の意味に訳してしまっています。



 確かな文法力は、やっぱり大事ですよ。

kaido4.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:10| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月24日

アメリカ大統領選挙に使われるいろいろなイディオム表現

 Voice of America の Words and Their Stories という番組を聞いてみましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、「アメリカの大統領選挙に使われるいろいろなイディオム表現」という放送です。スポーツから来たイディオム、ボクシングから来たイディオム、競馬から来たイディオムなどです。日本語でも今ではよく使われる表現もあります。

 これは役に立ちそうな表現集ですよ。覚えておくべきイディオムを太字にしましたから、辞書で意味や使い方を調べましょう。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分57秒あります。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



 And now the VOA Learning English program -- Words and Their Stories.


 On this show, we explore common expressions in American English.

 Today we talk about expressions related to the biggest contest in the United States ― the election of the American president.

 Well, except for the first election. That was not much of a contest. On February 4, 1789, all 69 members of Congress voted for George Washington.

 Supposedly, Washington didn’t even want to be President. John Adams was the runner-up. So, according to the rules at the time, Adams became Washington’s vice president.

 Elections these days are much harder to win. They can last for years and cost millions and millions of dollars. So it is not surprising that there are many expressions to describe the race for the White House. That expression, in fact, is one of them.

 We often call political elections races, a word you probably know from sports. Many expressions we use for political campaigns are borrowed from sports competitions. In fact, sometimes we just cut to the chase and call the presidential election, a horse race.

 If the race is close, we can say the candidates are neck-and-neck. This horse racing term means the two candidates are nearly tied in the polls and a winner is difficult to predict. We call such a race - political or otherwise - a dead heat.

 In the early part of an election cycle when a party is picking its nominee, usually many candidates are in the running. Sometimes a candidate pulls away from the pack and becomes the clear favorite.

 These two terms also come from horse racing. So does down to the wire.

 In a horse race, the horses race to the finish and run through a wire as they cross the finish line. A presidential race that is down to the wire is very close. The only way to know the winner is to wait for all the votes to be counted.
 If a candidate wins the election by a large margin -- that is to say won by many, many votes -- he or she has won hands down. We also say the race was a landslide. Or you could say the race was simply no contest.

 These expressions all mean a candidate won easily.

 But if a candidate loses an election by a big margin, we could say that campaign got blown out of the water, as if by a submarine torpedo. Or we might say simply that the candidate got crushed at the polls. More informally, we might also say the candidate got beat like a rug, which is visually entertaining.

 Some candidates lose an election because they are unwilling to toe the party line. In other words, they refuse to go along with the rules and standards of their own political party. This may upset the candidate’s base -- the people who usually support that party.

 The opposite of toeing the party line is reaching across the aisle. In the U.S., the two major parties are the Democrats and the Republicans. In this expression, the “aisle” refers to the actual physical walkway that divides the legislative halls. Members of the two parties sit on opposite sides.

 So “to reach across the aisle” means to make an effort to negotiate with members who are not in your party. Many politicians win elections because of their willingness to work with members of the opposing party. On the other hand, some politicians lose for the same reason.

 Voters can, sometimes, be very difficult to predict.

 And that brings us to the end of another Words and Their Stories.

 I’m Anna Matteo.


DSC01289.jpg
 写真はクリックすると拡大します。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 14:09| Comment(0) | 生活英語

different than 〜 は間違い? それとも許容? 


 「〜と異なる、違う」には、different from 〜 different than 〜という表現があります。

 そして、「different from のかわりに different than も使われるようになった」という声があったり、「different than は間違いで、正しい用法は different from だ」という意見を聞いたりします。

 しかし、実は、この2つはいずれも正しい用法です。

 もともと文法的な違いがあったのですが、両方を混同して使うネイティブ・スピーカーが多いというわけですね。

 ネイティブ・スピーカーの言うことは常に正しいとは限らないということです。

 次の2 つの文を比べてみてください。

・Their model is different from ours in its power requirements.
 「彼らの機種は所要電力の点で私どものとは違っている」

・The ad looks much different than I thought it would.
 「その広告は、私の思っていたのよりずっと違って見える」

 from than のあとに注目してください。

 from は前置詞ですから、あとには名詞や名詞句が続きます。最初の文の ours 以降は語句です。ですから from が使われるわけですね。

 いっぽう、than は前置詞でもありますが、接続詞の働きもあり、あとに「」を続けることができます。I thought it would は「節」ですから、2つめの文では than が使われているというわけです。

 1 つめの文を different than で言い換えることはできません。アメリカ人の中には使う人も多くいるようですが。それは間違いです。

 文法のことをよく知らないんですね。

 そして、2 つめの文は different from を使って言い換えることができますが、その場合は、
・The ad looks much different from what I thought it would.

のように、関係代名詞の what を使って from のあとを「名詞節」にする必要があります。前置詞である from のあとには、名詞(句)しか続かないからです。



 ところで、下の写真がどういう意味なのかご存じですか。
 shoefiti や shoe tossing で検索してみてください。

 DSC00851.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:45| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

2017年02月23日

アメリカの独立記念日は、ほんとうに7月4日?」

 Voice of America の The Making of a Nation という番組を聞いてみましょう。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、「アメリカの独立記念日は、ほんとうに7月4日?」という放送です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。3分26秒あります。

 音声が低いなと感じたら、左のスピーカーマークの「」で調整してください。



July-Fourth.jpg


 July 4, 1776, was the day early American leaders signed the Declaration of Independence and ended the colonies’ political relationship with Britain.

 Right?

 Well ... the real story is a little more complicated.

 It starts a year and a half earlier, in April 1775, when American colonists began fighting with British soldiers. At the time, most colonists just wanted more independence, not complete independence.

 But as the fighting continued, public opinion changed. By the summer of 1776, more and more people supported a complete break from Britain.
 
 In June, the colonial government met in Philadelphia.

 One of the representatives, Richard Henry Lee from Virginia, called for a vote on whether the colonies should declare their independence.

 The other delegates were not ready to vote. But they agreed to allow five people to write a statement about why the colonies were seeking independence.

 On July 2, nine of the thirteen delegates finally voted to accept Lee’s proposal for independence.

 A delegate from Massachusetts, John Adams, wrote to his wife that future citizens would celebrate July 2 for years to come.

 Two days later, Thomas Jefferson and the rest of the writing committee presented their Declaration of Independence. The delegates adopted it, and the president of the colonial government, John Hancock, signed it in large letters.

 But most of the other delegates did not sign the Declaration of Independence until a few weeks later. Some did not sign it until the following year. And some men who signed it had not even attended the vote in Philadelphia.

 Historian Ray Raphael challenges many American historical myths. Raphael says early American leaders did not discuss celebrating the anniversary of the colonies’ independence until it was too late. On July 3, 1777, they agreed to honor July 4 as America’s birthday.
 
 For well over 200 years, most Americans have marked the day with patriotic and family celebrations.

 I’m Jill Robbins.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:57| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月22日

ビラの語源? 「黄昏」 は 「誰そ彼」 か本当に?


post-no-bills.JPG

 post という動詞は、今では Facebook Twitter などでもおなじみの用語で、日本語としても理解されています。Post-It という付箋もありますね。

 bill は「ビラ、貼り紙」という意味です。

 ほかにもいろいろ「請求書、札、議案、法案、くちばし」などの意味があります。

 bill と 「ビラ」 は発音が似ているので、ビラの語源かと思ってしまいますが、どうなんでしょう?

 『広辞苑』はビラを 「bill の訛」 とし、「宣伝広告のために人目につく所に張り出したり通行人に配ったりする紙片」 と説明しています。そして、見出しは 「ビラ」 とカタカナです。

 また、講談社の『日本語大辞典』では、見出しを 「びら」 とひらがなにし、「片」 という漢字を当てています。語義は 『広辞苑』 とほぼ同じです。「花びら」の 「びら」 なんでしょうね。

 でも、どうして上に何も付いていないのに 「びら」 と濁るんでしょう?

 濁るということで私がいつも 「変だ」 と思っているのが、黄昏 (たそがれ) の語源とされる 「誰そ彼」 です。江戸時代にはすでに語源として確立していたとかいいますけどね。

 「彼」 は、上に何か付くと濁るんでしょうか。「元彼」は 「もとかれ」 で、濁りませんけどね。「あたしのもとがれがさぁ」と言いませんものね。

 私は 「冬枯れ」 などの 「枯れ」 だと思うんですけどね。まだ、調べ上げていません。
たそ」が何なのかわかりませんし。



 この本で、こうした英語の看板や標識の表現を見てみませんか。

 300円です。

SeikatuCover_web-sho.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 16:31| Comment(0) | 生活英語

-o で終わる名詞の複数形に付く -es と -s の違い

 昔、アメリカのブッシュ大統領 (父親のほう) の副大統領候補が、大統領選挙のキャンペーンでニュージャージーの小学校を訪れました。

 そこでは英語のつづり方のコンテストが行なわれており、ある少年が黒板に potato と書いたところ、それを見ていたクエール氏は 「惜しいネ」 と言って、少年が書いた potato という文字の後ろに e を付け加え、potatoe としたのでした。

 その副大統領候補はダン・クエールという人で、喰えーるどころか喰えない話でした。

 この副大統領候補は、potatoes という複数形のつづりは知っていたわけですね。ま、そりゃそうでしょうね。
 
 そして、複数形の語尾には -s が付くというルールに則って語尾から -s だけを差し引き、potaoe というつづりを残してしまったわけですね。

 さて、私たちは、-o で終わる単語の複数形には -es が付く場合と -s が付く場合があると習うかと思います。

 【例】 potato  →  potatoes
     tomato  →  tomatoes
     photo   →  photos
     piano   →  pianos


 なぜでしょう? そして、違いはどこから来るのでしょうか。

 もともと、-o で終わる単語の複数形には -es しか付かないのです。そして、-s しか付かない単語は、語源に原因があるのです。

 語尾に -es が付く tomato potato も、もともとこのつづりですが、photo は、もともと photograph なのです。そして、piano は pianoforte です。

 こうした単語は -o で終わるわけではありませんから、複数形には -s のみが付くというわけです。ですから、略語になっても、複数形には -s のみが付くというわけですね。



 こういった単語の話は、この本で学習してみませんか。

500円です。

Magi_book_web.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:51| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

2017年02月21日

make love to someone か make love with someone か?

 前のブログで、第4文型を第3文型に書き換える (言い換える) とき、前置詞に to を使うか for を使うかは、次のルールで決定すると書きました。

 1. 相手がいないと行為が成立しない場合には、to を使う。
 2. 相手がいなくても行為が成立する場合には、for を使う。


 そして、make という動詞は make a doll for my daughter のように、ふつうは for を使うと述べ、さらに、make to を使わなければならない場合が1つだけあるとも書きました。

 そして、前回のブログの答えは、make love to someone です。このときは、for ではなく to にしないと、変な意味になってしまいます。


 歌のタイトルや歌詞で、使い方を見てみましょう。

まず、Mashmakhan というカナダのグループが歌った As the Years Go By (日本題 『霧の中の二人』 では、次のように to を使っています。

At seventeen a girl says, do you love me
And it really means, will you respect me
The teenage boy answers, I love you
But it really means, can I make love to you


 また、カナダの Anne Murray という人の "Make Love To Me" でも、次のように to を使って表現しています。

Say it to me gently, let the sweet talk flow
Come a little closer, make love to me.


 しかし、Ian Dury という人は、“Wake Up And Make Love With Me” という歌を歌っています。

 近年、to を使った表現は男性側からの一方的な感じに聞こえるということで、古い言い方だとされ、二人の合意による行為であることを表現するには with にすべきだという説もよく聞かれるようになりました。

 こうしたことからか、今では make love という表現よりも have sex with ... のほうが多く使われるようです。

do は使いませんので、念のため。


 下の本では、こうした文法の微妙な使い分けなどを説明しています。ここからお求めください。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 14:13| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月20日

江戸期の正月に月は出ない。

 以前にもほかの作家の作品で、このことを書きました。今日は葉室麟氏の作品です。

 葉室氏の勘違いなのか、私の理解不足なのか分かりませんが、次の展開がちょっと気になりました。写真はクリックすると拡大します。拡大して読んでください。

   20170220192113.jpg

 まず、「年が明けた。 正月早々、....」 とあります。そして、「年賀の挨拶」 とありますから、7日も10日も経ってからではないでしょう。たぶん三が日のあいだだと思われます。

 旧暦では、正月(月の初め)は新月です。つまり、夜に月は見えません。

 作品のこの場面が正月3日だとしたら、三日月です。次の写真のように 「月を見上げた」のは、夜暗くなってからかなりが経った時刻と思われますから、夜半でしょうか。

   20170220192148.jpg

とすると、三日月は、すでに沈んでいるはずです。

葉室氏の作品は数多く読みましたが、彼は時代考証がすばらしく、こんなミスを犯すとは思えないのです。私の理解力のなさでしょうかね。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 19:53| Comment(0) | 雑文

停まっているときに stopping は使えない

 電車の車内表示が英語や韓国語、中国語になった車輌も増えてきました。こんな表示が出ます。
もうすぐ○○駅に到着します」 という、近未来を表す進行形ですね。

arriving.jpg

 これは正しい使い方です。


 そして、「ただいま○○駅に停車中」 というときに、下の表示が出ます。

stopping.jpg


 しかし、この表示は間違っています

 stop 瞬間動作動詞と言われるものです。

 stop という動詞は、止まった瞬間にその動作は終わってしまいます。ですから、進行形を使ったからといって 「状態」が続いていることを表すことはできないのです。

 例えば、I’m finishing my homework. と言えば、まだ宿題は終わっていません。
そして、My grandfather is dying. と言えば、まだおじいさんは生きています。「死んでいる」ではありません。

 これらと同じで、stopping だと、まだ止まっていません。限りなく 「アキレスと亀」 の状態です。arriving at 〜 は「〜に到着しつつある」 という意味で 「到着している」 ではありません。


 では、「○○駅に停まっている」は、どう言えばよいのでしょうか。

 The train is staying at Chofu Station. だと、なんか夜通し停まっている感じですね。

 ふつうは、The train is standing at Chofu Station. のように言うようです。


 下の本では、こうした文法の微妙な使い分けなどを説明しています。ここからお求めください。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:42| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月17日

春一番

 きょう、関東地方は春一番の強い風が吹きました。
 それで、思い出すのは、キャンディーズの『春一番』です。

 訳してみました。

Melted snow is flowing as a stream
Babies of horsetail are shyly appearing
Spring is coming
Why don’t you take on a little?

Breeze is carrying warm air
A stranger boy came pick up the girl next-door
Spring is coming
Why don’t you take your boyfriend out?

Happiness will not come if you keep crying
Take off your heavy coat and go out
Spring is coming
Why don’t you find a new love?


 ついでに、これもお聞きになってください。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 22:46| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

キム・ジョンナム氏暗殺のニュース(時間的に早いほう)


 こちらのほうが早い情報のニュースです。そして、ずっと短いです。





 South Korean media say the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has been killed in Malaysia.

 A South Korean government official said that Kim Jong Nam was killed Monday, the Yonhap news agency reported.

 The official did not provide additional information.

 Two unidentified female agents reportedly used poisoned needles to kill Kim at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The two then fled the area in a taxi. The women are believed to have been working for North Korea.

 South Korea’s National Intelligence Service neither confirmed nor denied the story.

 Kim Jong Nam spent large amounts of time outside North Korea. He also had voiced disapproval of his family’s control of the country.

 He and his younger brother, North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, are both sons of former North Korean leader Kim Jong Il. However, they had different mothers. The older brother was once considered to be the heir of his father and was expected to lead the country.

 However, Kim Jong Nam fell from favor with his father in 2001. That year, he attempted to enter Japan with a false passport, reportedly to visit Tokyo Disneyland.

 Since that time, he has lived mainly in the Chinese territory of Macau.

 Kim Jong Nam was believed to be close to his uncle, Joang Song Thaek. Joang was considered the second most powerful man in North Korea, but he was executed in 2013. Kim Jong Un reportedly ordered his execution.
 
 In previous years, Kim Jong Nam expressed disinterest in leading North Korea. “Personally, I am against third-generation succession,” he told Japan’s Asahi TV in 2010.

 Kim Jong Il died in December 2011, when Kim Jong Un took power.

 “I hope my younger brother will do his best for the sake of North Koreans’ prosperous lives,” he reportedly said.

 I’m Mario Ritter.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 17:32| Comment(0) | 生活英語

キム・ジョンナム氏暗殺のニュースを聞いてみましょう。

 やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語で、北朝鮮のキム・ジョンナム氏暗殺のニュースを聞いてみましょう。
 ちょっと長くて6分43秒ありますが、頑張って。
スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。




 The apparent assassination of the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has increased support for critics of the country’s government.

 Those critics accuse North Korea of being a state that operates outside the law. They say the government kills its enemies and depends on criminal activity for survival.

 Malaysian officials continue to investigate the death of Kim Jong Nam, who was attacked at Kuala Lumpur International Airport on Monday. He died a short time later.

 Kim Jong Nam and Kim Jong Un are sons of former North Korean leader Kim Jong Il.

 On Thursday, Malaysian police said they arrested a woman suspected of involvement in the killing. She is said to have an Indonesian passport.

 Another woman was arrested Wednesday on suspicion of involvement in the case. She reportedly had Vietnamese travel papers.

 Police also detained a man who provided information that led to the arrest of one of the women.

 South Korean officials have said two North Korean female agents poisoned Kim Jong Nam at the airport. They say the women sprayed liquid droplets at him and then held a cloth over his face.

 That information is different from early reports of how Kim Jong Nam may have been poisoned.

 Airport cameras captured images of the suspects. One woman wore a shirt with the letters “LOL” on the front.

 There are reports that Malaysian officials have refused efforts by North Korean officials to stop a medical exam of the body.

 North Korean critics have described the government as a highly corrupt, family-led criminal operation. They say North Korea is active in smuggling, secretly transporting goods and other materials in and out of the country.

 Critics also say the government is involved in drug trafficking and arms dealing, including the exchange of nuclear materials and missile parts. They say all the money earned goes to North Korea’s wealthy leadership.

 In 2012, United Nations diplomats reported on the discovery of North Korean-made graphite cylinders on a Chinese ship traveling to Syria. They said the tubes could be used to make missiles.

 In 2005, an official from Ireland was arrested for having high-quality counterfeit copies of money from the United States. The counterfeit $100 bills reportedly were made in North Korea.

 In 2016, a British citizen was sentenced to 15 years in prison for plotting to import 100 kilograms of North Korean methamphetamine drugs into the U.S.

 Robert Kelly teaches at Pusan National University in South Korea. He says he would not be surprised if the North Korean leadership was to blame for the killing of Kim Jong Nam.

ここは飛ばしても大丈夫です。

 “You know, the North Koreans, they just don’t follow the rules, both internally and externally. They treat their own people terribly and overseas they basically have engaged in this massive illicit economy and it’s not surprising that that would also include illicit political behaviors like assassinations.”


 Kim Jong Nam was once considered a possible replacement for Kim Jong Il as North Korea’s head of state. But the son was caught trying to enter Japan with a false passport in 2001, reportedly to visit Tokyo Disneyland. After that, Kim Jong Nam spent most of his time in Macau.

 In 2012, he wrote a note to a Japanese reporter. It said, “The Kim Jong-un regime will not last long. Without reforms.”

 The South Korean National Intelligence Service said recently that the North Korean leader had given a “standing order” for his half-brother’s killing when he took power.

 Robert Kelly says stopping unlawful activity by North Korea’s leadership could put pressure on the government to change. But, he says, that would require cooperation from China, North Korea’s main ally. He thinks China is unwilling to do anything that would weaken the Kim family’s control and that would create instability within its neighbor.

 As of Thursday, there was no news of Kim Jong Nam’s death in North Korean media.

 North Korean leader Kim Jong Un marked the birthday of his father Kim Jong Il, which is a national holiday in the country.

 I’m Mario Ritter.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 17:15| Comment(0) | 生活英語

turn into ... の2つの意味

20170216144249.jpg


 このカードの英文には turn into が2回出てきますね。

 the frog turned into an absolutely gorgeous sexy young prince(カエルはものすごくゴージャスでセクシーな若い王子様に変わったのです)と、what the old lady turned into? です。


2つめは、「曲がって〜に入っていく」という意味で使われています。

 このカードを開けると、次の文が書いてあります。


 The first motel she could find.

 元気なおばあさんですねぇ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:15| Comment(0) | 生活英語

スマホと私のどっちが大事なの?

 Voice of America American Mosaic (アメリカの種々相)という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 バレンタインデーも過ぎてしまいましたが、きょうは、「スマホと私のどっちが大事なの?」と、私が勝手に題した話題です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分34秒あります。



 Forget the chocolates, flowers and jewelry.

 This Valentine’s Day, February 14, perhaps the best gift you can give the love of your life is your undivided attention. Sadly, for many of us, that is easier said than done.

 An international study of more than 13,000 adults found that many people say modern technology has affected relations with their partner. Almost 40 percent of those questioned said their partner paid more attention to their mobile device than to them.

 Intel Security Group, a private company, paid for the study. It examined how romantic relationships are affected by a person's use of social media and the Internet.

 The research included both old and new relationships. Thirty-three percent of those asked reported that they had to compete against a mobile device for attention on a first date.

 Apparently, we have as much love for our digital devices as for the people we love. Intel’s survey found that adults spend almost equal amounts of time online at home as they do interacting directly.

 And a lot of married couples, friends and family members argue about time spent on mobile devices.

 Gary Davis is the chief consumer security officer at Intel Security. He says recognition of our electronic device involvement is important.

 “If you have a pattern where you’re at dinner, you’re out on a date, you're home having a quiet evening, maybe watching a show, or just enjoying a fire ... and a device comes into play, it’s that awkward thing that I don’t think enough people think about. And when they don’t think about it, they don’t understand the wear and tear it’s causing on the relationship.”

 Edward Spector holds a similar opinion.

 “We’re not thoughtfully progressing in terms of how we’re using technology.”

 Spector works as a psychologist in Bethesda, Maryland. He studies human behavior, and specializes in technology dependence.

 "So, we have to be thoughtful about the consequences of connecting to a particular social network, or allowing yourself to have the habit of the last hour and a half of your evening be checking your Facebook, or always responding to a text immediately."

 Rules or time limits on a device might be good, in theory. However, Intel’s survey found that 45 percent of those questioned do not set rules. Another 45 percent said they got into arguments about how much they are on their phones when spending time with loved ones.

 The lack of social rules about digital behavior might be the result of the newness of the issue.

 Past generations did not have the technologies, said psychologist Spector.

 “In this situation, our elders know nothing. In fact, the knowledge and competence is moving towards the youngest generation that’s using the technology because they’re the ones bounding forward fearlessly, and finding out what ways you can get in trouble.”

 That trouble may include the sharing of sensitive information. Intel’s research found nearly 30 percent of couples share passwords to social media sites. This could be a problem when relationships end.

 Intel’s Gary Davis advises that people step away from electronic devices to truly connect with other people.

 “Understand the value of distancing yourself from your device and allow yourself to be engaged with that person that means the most to you,” said Davis.

I'm Caty Weaver.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:45| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月16日

アンドリュー・ジャクソンに例えられるトランプ

 Voice of America の The Making of a Nation (国の成り立ち)という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語です。

 きょうは、トランプ大統領と第7代大統領のアンドリュー・ジャクソンを比較している話です。
 日本語では、議員や首相などに使う 「」 と 「」 は区別していますが、英語では「大統領」も「大統領」も、同じく former president です。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。5分14秒あります。




 Donald Trump has done a lot in his first week as president of the United States.
 Trump canceled several of former President Barack Obama’s executive orders. He signed some of his own executive orders. He also met with members of the U.S. intelligence community.

 In between, the new president chose artwork to hang in his office at the White House. One is a painting of former President Andrew Jackson.

 Some Americans say his choice of the painting is not a surprise. Many have been comparing President Trump with the former president.

 Jackson became America’s seventh president in 1828. Historians consider the 1828 election one of the more negative presidential campaigns. Many people say the 2016 election campaign was also extremely negative.

 That is just the beginning of the comparisons between Trump and Jackson, observers say. Both men campaigned as populists – candidates who say they represent ordinary people. Both are also known as political outsiders and conservatives. And, both are known for having strong personalities.

 Jackson, like Trump, was fiercely independent. He said that he alone would define his administration’s policies.

 Trump spoke about conditions in the United States, and around the world, at the Republican Party’s national convention last summer.

 “I alone can fix it,” he said. Trump was talking of, in his words, “poverty and violence at home,” and “war and destruction abroad.”

 Observers have also noted similar parts of his inaugural speech to the speech given by former President Jackson.

 Andrew Jackson served two terms in office. He was a member of the Democratic Party -- the conservative party at that time in American history.

 Donald Trump once considered himself a Democrat. He was also, at one time, an independent. He is now a Republican -- the major conservative party in America today.

 But there are some clear differences between the two presidents, says writer Richard Dean Young. He has argued that Trump is not exactly a modern-day Jackson.

 “Historical comparisons are tricky,” Young told VOA.

 One difference is that Jackson served in the U.S. military, Young said. He fought in battles against Native Americans and, later, against British forces.

 Trump, on the other hand, is a billionaire businessman from New York City. In Young’s words, Trump is “a city boy with absolutely no experience in military matters.”

 "Jackson was ‘one of the people,’ definitely not a city boy,” Young said.

 Margaret O’Mara is a professor of history at the University of Washington in Seattle. She said Trump’s populist-conservative message does resemble that of Andrew Jackson’s.

 O’Mara said, “Trump is extraordinary.” And the country, she said, has never elected a populist quite like him before.

 O’Mara said it is still too early to predict Trump’s place in history.

 "It is too soon to make judgments about his place in presidential history. That will depend on what he does, how he does it," O’Mara said.

 I'm Caty Weaver.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 09:40| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月15日

神田川

You may have already forgotten ...
Tying a red towel around the neck
You and I went to the bathhouse on the back street

We promised to come out together
Well, you always kept me waiting

My washed hair froze to the core
I was shivering and my soapbox rattled

You held me tight and said
Sorry, you became cold

Back then being young
I was not afraid of anything
The only thing I was afraid of losing
Was your warmth



 「神田川」 の1番の最後は 「あなたのやさしさが怖かった」 ですが、「やさしさを失うのが怖い」 と考えるほうがいいだろうと考えて、afraid of losing を補ってみました。

 また、「やさしさ」 は kindness をすぐに思い浮かべますが、風呂上がりで冷めた身体を抱いてくれた 「彼の温かさ」 と 「やさしさ」 を結びつけて、warmth としてみました。

0139B759.jpg
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 15:50| Comment(0) | 雑文

弘法も筆のあやまり ―― ネイティブ・スピーカーも文法を間違える


 下の写真は、アメリカのスーパーマーケットのレジにある掲示です。

express-lane.jpg

 アメリカ人たちは、スーパーで毎日ショッピングをすることは、ほとんどありません。家の冷蔵庫も巨大ですから、週末にまとめて大量に買い込みます。
 ですから、レジでは一人一人の精算に時間がかかるのです。

 数品しか買わない人にとっては、長い列に待たされるとイライラします。

 そこで、こんな掲示を設置して、そうした人たちにすばやく対応しようというわけです。


 しかし、この less は文法的に間違っています。10 items のように数えられる名詞が使われていますから、並べて比較するのであれば、less ではなく fewer にすべきです。

 下の写真の本では、こうした看板や交通標識の写真を約60枚使い、その表現や文法などを詳しく解説しています。

SeikatuCover_web.jpg

 そして、わずか300円です。スマホでも見られますよ。

 ここから進んでください。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 12:07| Comment(0) | 電子ブック

stump という単語を使ったイディオムとその歴史

 Voice of America の Words and Their Stories という番組です。やさしい、ゆっくりとした英語を聞きましょう。

 きょうは、stump という単語がどういうイディオムで、また大統領のスピーチの中で使われているかを話しています。

 スクリプトを下に示します。下のシークバーをクリックすると音声が流れます。6分11秒あります。



 And now the VOA Learning English program, Words and Their Stories.

 Every word has its own story. What does it mean? Where did it come from? And how did it get into our language?

 There are many stories of early settlers of America: the people who moved westward and opened up new territory. Many of these settlers were farmers who wanted a new home, a piece of land, some crops and cattle.

 So, they moved west, cutting their way through difficult terrain, searching for a good place to live and farm. When they found it, they took out their axes and cut down trees. This was hard work. One of the hardest tasks was pulling up tree stumps from the ground.

 And that’s our word today -- “stump.”

 A tree stump is the part of a tree that remains in the ground after the tree is cut down. Stumps can also be the part of something such as a pencil that remains after the rest has been worn away.

 Tree stumps gave these early American farmers big problems. Some stumps were so big that farmers had to use two or three horses to pull them out.

 Stumps became part of life and part of the language. If someone asked a settler if they had cleared the land, they might answer: “Nope. I’m still stumped.” This means they did not know how to get rid of the tree stumps from the ground.

 And today, this meaning of the word is the same. To be stumped is to not know what to do or say. You are confused. You are blocked.

 During the early days of America, the trees fell fast. The stumps remained for years. Sometimes they became part of the landscape. Some writers even wrote stories about tree stumps.

 One day in 1716, a visitor named Ann Maury left the east coast to visit a so-called “stump town” in the west.

 “I went into the middle of the town,” she wrote. “And there, right in the center, surrounded by wooden buildings, was the great stump of a tree. I asked why this stump had not been pulled up. ‘Oh, we just never thought of it,’ was the answer. ‘Besides,’ the townspeople explained, ‘whenever one of the two chiefs has something to say, he stands upon this stump and is raised higher than the others. In this way, he can be heard better.’”

 When George Washington became commander of all the colonial troops in 1775, he supposedly used stumps to talk to his troops.

 In time, anyone who stood on a stump and spoke to the people became a “stump speaker.” As we know, politicians like to speak to crowds. So, it wasn’t long before “stump” entered politics.

 Presidential candidates travel all over the country to explain their positions on issues to voters and try to win their support.

 Jon Favreau was a speechwriter for President Barack Obama. He explained in an ABC news video that a stump speech is a candidate’s “argument” for why he or she should be elected.

 The speechwriter says that stump speeches contain everything a voter needs to know about where a candidate stands on issues important to that campaign.

 He says that stump speeches are useful “campaign tools that they (politicians) can use on the road.” They can simply reuse the same speech over and over or change it a little to fit each audience.

 We also use “stump” as a verb. The Online Etymology Dictionary defines “stump” as to "go on a speaking tour during a political campaign." The site says that usage began in 1838.

 These days, politicians are “stumping” when they go into their same old speech that they have given over and over and over again. So, it is no surprise that “stumping” used this way is often not a good thing.

 And that is the end of Words and Their Stories. If this story has left you feeling stumped, write us a comment. We will help you figure it out!

 I’m Anna Matteo.
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 10:09| Comment(0) | 生活英語

2017年02月14日

なごり雪

You are waiting for a train
Standing next to you
I am worrying about the time
Unseasonal snow is falling

This will be the last time
I see snow falling in Tokyo
So you said sadly

Now I see the season has come
It's the time when late spring snow falls
After we've had too much fun

Now it's spring
And you have become pretty
Much prettier than last year



 融け残った雪は 「なごり雪」 ではありません。
 融け残った雪は 「友待つ雪」 といいます。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 23:25| Comment(0) | 雑文

英語の文法用語を英語で覚えるということ

 下に、Voice of America から Everyday Grammar という番組を2つ紹介しました。

 文法について説明している番組ですから、英語の文法用語が出てきます。例えば 「過去形」 は past tense のように。

 大学で英語の授業をネイティブ・スピーカーの先生が行うことが増えてきていますし、文科省の学習指導要領でも 「高校での英語の授業は英語で行うことを基本とする」 のようにうたっています。
 ですから、文法用語を英語で知っておくことが、これからどんどん必要になってくることでしょう。

 下の拙著では、文法を英語で説明していますから、読み進めていくことによって、文法用語を英語で無理なく覚えていくことができます。

SpeakingCover_2.jpg

 ここからどうぞ。
posted by 赤井田拓弥 at 13:29| Comment(0) | 電子ブック